Saturday, February 23, 2019

Tok Bias Essay (Gavin Menzies, Jared Diamond, Etc.)

Theory Of Knowledge To what extent whoremonger discord precaution in our disposition of level? October 2012 International traildays of Curacao Wordcount 2,691 Historical discrepancys To what extent can disagreement aid in our rationality of bill? racket has been present in the gentleman constantly since the first biotic and abiotic particularors roamed the Earth. In order to under(a)stand what the question is asking, we mustiness define its key interchanges. Disagreement is defined as a deviation in opinion and diversity.Even though the condition disagreement has a banish t ace, it does non necessarily have to be bad. Disagreement offers people a antithetical point of view and can help the earthly concerns population improve its reason of each different. This brings me to the next key word in the question understanding. Understanding is described as the comprehension of a certain topic and as having a mental grasp on something. People encounter disagreements during backchats, which makes the conversation richer. I find it is burning(prenominal), for every humanness being, to understand that disagreements be healthy.Without disagreement, at that place entrust be too a good deal familiarity and similarity, and life will be omiting adventure and uncertainties. Disagreement and lack of understanding ar often, if non always, seen in score. Many warf atomic number 18s start be perplex of a disagreement and/or because of the lack of willingness of understanding. narration is defined as the guide of the angiotensin converting enzyme succession(prenominal). Much of the champaign of storey is factual. Facts are statements supposedly rig in stone and reliable. From a young age on, children are taught that facts are non to be altered. As they grow up, they find that this is false history is non entirely set in stone.And that is exactly what this paper will be covering, with the help of Jared infield, Galileo Galilei, Gavin Me nzies, Fritz Fischer, Charles van Doren, and Reuben Abel. Historiography is the writing of history. According to Reuben Abel, different historiographies are influenced by the history of civilization. This history of civilization is depending on climate, soil, and geography. Geography brings up some other historian that helps acquit that disagreement aids in the understanding of history. Jared Diamond did research on why historiography is different in different continents.He produce his findings in a book call(a)ed Guns, Germs, and Steel. Diamond argued that the gaps in technology and power between human societies are not caused mainly by cultural and racial differences. He states that the geography and ecology of European and Asiatic landmasses gave the societies there an advantage over those on other continents. Although Diamonds findings sound realistic, his work was critiqued for factual errors. Diamond, although criticized, is important to abide by in the discussion on ho w disagreement aids in the understanding of history.His findings may not all be correct, but some are. This manifests that there were many different factors playing in the different historiographies in different continents in the world. Reuben Abel goes on by stating that the history of civilization is also dependent of race, hereditary ability, and psychological factors. Additionally, it depends on the motif of power and on the theory that history is the history of class struggle. This is an judgment taking from Marxism, and the first kind of approach to history that it is cyclical.Reuben Abel goes on by stating that historiographies should be appraised and assessed, but that there is no of the essence(p) experiment that can test the validity of a theory of history. Abels claim that History is far from being exclusively scientific or factual it is also a big part creative is one I can agree with. History is not just facts. amidst the factual convictions, there has to be at l east one sentence linking one fact to another(prenominal). The main reason why Reuben Abel is important to mention in this essay about disagreement aiding the understanding of history is that kind-heartedness has not yet discovered every bit of evidence in the world.Abel mentions that the past is inferred from present evidence. What he means with this is that the evidence prime in modern times indicates the past. With this, Abel concludes that present evidence is not complete. Hence, the past remains a mystery. A good example of diachronic misrepresentation is Stalins photograph bear offn with Nikolai Yezhov, which was altered later on to remove Yezhov. Disagreement has been present in history and often a source of major (bloody) diachronic events. A good example of disagreement aiding in the understanding of history is the three different views of any historical event.You have the Jewish-Orthodox view of a historical event, which is the traditional outlook and interpretati on of historical facts. The second view is the revisionist one. These historians take a second look at the evidence of the first view. The third view is the post-revisionist view. Historians look at both(prenominal) the traditional and the revisionist view of the same historical event, and conclude something based on both views. This is important in discussing how disagreement aids in the understanding of history. The three views obviously have a different opinion of what caused a certain historical event.But this disagreement, that is healthy, provides the worlds population with a bring out understanding of history. The disagreement gives the world the option to choose which view they support the most. Gavin Menzies is another great example of one who argues the truth of history. He states that it was not Christopher capital of Ohio who discovered the States in 1492, but the Chinese. He says that the unfermented liberality was stumbled upon by the Chinese in 1421. This is seve n decades prior to Columbus. Menzies is germane(predicate) in the discussion about disagreement aiding in the understanding of history, because he questions and challenges history.He has found and states his evidence, in his book, supporting that China had been actively sailing virtually the world during the 1420s. The reason why he is arguing the truth of the Statess uncovering is because he himself found out that many historical Chinese events happened in 1421. This is the main reason why he trenchant to write a book about the Chinese discovering the States to begin with Columbus. Additionally, Menzies is important to mention in the discussion of how disagreement can aid in the understanding of history because of his thesis.His thesis changed the Western age of discovery and altered the common belief that Europe discovered Asia. Some of his arguments accept finding Asian jade in Aztec tombs, and allegations of Chinese ideograms found on pre-Columbian pottery. another(prenomi nal) argument he uses to defend his statement(s) is the stem of maps that show countries that were not yet discovered by Europe in the fifteenth century. His third supporting argument is that not only many academics in China support him also academics on the West Coast of America believe Zhang He found North America and Australia during his two-year journey over the ocean, which began in 1421.Menzies re-opened the discussion of truth in relation to history in 2008 when he stated that the Chinese sparked the Renaissance. With his book, Menzies real much criticism. Oxford professor Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, for example, counters Menzies evidence of maps by saying What Gavin Menzies doesnt understand is that maps at that time were as much acts of the imagination as cartography. Menzies replies by stating that there are over 6,000 references that support the idea of diffusion theory. This is the idea that there are non-homogeneous alternative theories that discuss Americas discovery .Menzies goes on by stating that it is Virtually impossible to still argue that Columbus discovered America, that Cook found Australia or that Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the world. This is also because evidence was discovered that the Vikings discovered America 500 geezerhood prior to Columbus, and 430 years prior to the Chinese. Menzies also states that in the 1400s, only the Chinese had the capacity and knowledge to explore the world. The article on his website summarizes that Menzies says that the Chinese elapse could have circumnavigated the world four times between 1421 and 1426. The key word to view is could.By using this word, Menzies assumes that the Chinese could circle the world four times, period there is hardly any sign of evidence to support this argument. If Menzies had evidence to support his statement, he would not be using the word could. Another reason why Menzies is significant when looking at disagreement aiding in the understanding of history is because he introduces the idea of diffusion theories to a junior audience. He is able to make people question what they were taught at school and think about their sources. But then this question comes to mind is Menzies intention to prove Chinas role in the discovery of America ethical?This means that many historians that studied the topic of discovery should and will be questioned. Many people will be questioning their beliefs and Spain (as comfortably as various other countries) will be suffering under a bad image. Menzies is making the public question their sanction and textbooks. Another man who made the public question their authority and textbooks was German historian Fritz Fischer. In 1961, he introduced that Germany intended to start a (world) war to gain more economic and political dominance over Europe, Africa, and Asia.Germany had a strong sense of colonialism, and found imperialism very important. Fischer, as a revisionist, concludes that so Germany is responsible for the start of the majuscule War, or the premier War. His colleagues and the (German) public received his contributions with shock as it challenged the traditional view that Germany stumbled into the war, just like the other great European powers did. Younger historians later found truth in some of his evidence and Fischer became Germanys best-known living historian to the world, until he died on December 1st of 1999.The main reason why Fischer is important to mention in a discussion about disagreement aiding in the understanding of history is because his statement opened up the discussion of the world wars. Before, German people were not allowed to speak of the war, as it was still a very sensitive topic. Fischer blew new life into the topic of Germanys intentions. The disagreement among him and his supports and other historians has shown that there is more evidence to what humanity is aware of now. acantha then the causes of the Great War were debatable, yet one was seen as set in stone.Now children are taught that there are various causes of the Great War. This disagreement caused by Fischer has resulted in a go against understanding of the intentions of Germany in the Great War. Another important subject related to disagreement in aiding the understanding of history is truth and reality. Before and somewhat after the Renaissance, religious populations believed that the world was flat, and that one could fall off of it. This was, however, proven wrong by various scientists in BC and in AD. Another example of human caper and ignorance of truth and reality is Charles van Dorens jeopardize show appearance.In January of 1957, he entered a game show and won more than $1 million. It became later known that Van Doren was given the answers to the questions and that he therefore cheated. Van Dorens cheating shows that even something as simple as a game show, can be manipulated. When viewing this problem on a larger scale, one will make the startling discove ry that certain things are happening that run-of-the-mill people are not and will never be aware of. The manipulation also shows and supports the idea that what happens in the present, and what happened in the past, may be believed to be true, until one knows the actual truth.Sometimes people do not want to have a disagreement about history and present knowledge. A good example of this is the Renaissance, specifically Galileo Galilei. Galileo was famous for his scientific findings and believes. In 1632, he published a book in which he stated that the Earth was moving around the sun. By doing so he was proving the common believe of the Earth being central in the universe, wrong. This enkindle the Pope, and Galileo was found suspect of heresy and was forced to say that his findings were wrong. Additionally, he became jailed and persecuted by the church.Galileo is important to mention in the discussion of disagreement aiding in the understanding of history as he demonstrated the adv antages of experimentation and change. He was among those who began the Scientific Revolution in Europe. Disagreement is necessary in discussions and in life. Without it, life would be dull and too familiar. Because of disagreement, many people are given the option to choose who and what they want to believe. This is when historiography comes into place. Historiography is the writing of history. There is soul who writes the history that children are taught of in class.This someone can be a traditional Orthodox historian, a revisionist historian, or a post-revisionist. The lessons for history that we, the ordinary and educated part of humanity, are taught were once determined by one of these categories of historians. Their view is what we value as truth and factual. Galileo, for example, was one among many who turn out the truth of a flat Earth wrong. He discovered, with a squeeze and calculations, that the Earth is round. Although found mad at first, Galileo proved something tha t was found true by many religious people, false. Another example of this would be Gavin Menzies.He argued that it was not Columbus who discovered America, but the Chinese. Although he receives many critics on his book, he has proven that there is new evidence supporting that Columbus was not the first on America. This has made many people question their textbooks and take a second look at many historical facts. Fritz Fischer has through with(p) similar and made Germans and other countries in the world take another look at their textbooks. He did so by stating that Germany is responsible for the First World War, as they promoted imperialism and colonialism. Germany was greedy and therefore to blame for the First World War.Jared Diamond has also made people check their textbooks. He introduced the idea that there are various factors influencing each historical event. Diamond proved that Europe and Asia were able to conquer the New World due to their geography and agriculture. Charle s van Doren did not prove anything wrong either, but proved that humanity may be deceived by their lack of knowledge. By entering a game show and winning through cheating, Van Doren has proven that something as simple as a game show can be manipulated. This raises the question of what else is manipulated that humanity is unaware of?To conclude, disagreement is important when looking at history. History is not set in stone, and can never fully be. Reuben Abel said that the evidence found today, determines the history. This is true as much culture is still lacking from history, and certain events are still lacking cause and reason, which would be determined by the evidence. The disagreement among historians wakes up humanity. It forces us to study certain events better in order to fully understand all of its possible causes. We will be able to understand history better by viewing different possibilities.The people present during the historical events are gone, and only psychical evi dence is left over. From this, historians conclude their professional opinions. Disagreement aids in the understanding of history as it provides humanity with the orifice of variety. Bibliography BBC News. (2002, October 22). Experts hope to emulate Chinese Columbus. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from BBC News http//news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2349929. stm Clark, J. (2012). Did the Chinese beat Columbus to America? Retrieved October 1, 2012, from How sate Works http//history. howstuffworks. om/european-history/chinese-beat-columbus. htm Dictionary. (2012). Disagreement. Retrieved October 3, 2012, from Dictionary http//dictionary. reference. com/browse/disagreement Dictionary. (2012). Fact. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Dictionary http//dictionary. reference. com/browse/fact Freudenrich, C. C. (2011). World History. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from Curiosity http//curiosity. discovery. com/question/how-know-vikings-north-america Gavin Menzies. (2011, August 11). Australia as s urveyed by Zheng He fleet voyagers before 1433 -paper delivered in Brisbane, August 2006.Retrieved September 21, 2012, from Gavin Menzies http//www. gavinmenzies. net/ grounds/5-australia-as-surveyed-by-zheng-he-fleet-voyagers-before-1433-paper-delivered-in-brisbane-august-2006/ Hitt, J. (2012, January 5). Goodbye, Columbus Retrieved October 1, 2012, from New York Times http//www. nytimes. com/2003/01/05/magazine/goodbye-columbus. hypertext mark-up language? pagewanted=all&src=pm Lovgren, S. (2005, July 6). Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond on Geography as Power. Retrieved October 3, 2012, from National geographical http//news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2005/07/0706_050706_diamond. html Menzies, G. 2011, August 18). At the time only the Chinese had the capacity and knowledge to explore and chart the world. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from Gavin Menzies http//www. gavinmenzies. net/ distinguish/1-at-the-time-only-the-chinese-had-the-capacity-and-knowledge-to-explore-and-cha rt-the-world/ Merriam-Webster. (2012). Understanding. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from Merriam-Webster http//www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/understanding Saxon, W. (1999, December 10). Fritz Fischer, 91 German Historian doomed Germany for First War. Retrieved October 3, 2012, from New York Times http//www. nytimes. om/1999/12/10/world/fritz-fischer-91-german-historian-blamed-germany-for-first-war. html Stanfor Solar Center. (2010). Who was Galileo? Retrieved October 3, 2012, from Stanford Solar Center http//solar-center. stanford. edu/galileo/ The idle Dictionary. (2012). History. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from The Free Dictionary by Farlex http//www. thefreedictionary. com/history The Telegraph. (2008, August 1). Gavin Menzies mad as a snake- or blowy? 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