Friday, May 31, 2019
**Orange Juice**Contrast and IronyGentle moments in the story keep it naturalistic while the larger plot progresses and sucks us in. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction- The Godfather will make sure. Not a killer by his definition, The Godfather does not mix family and business matters, yet family and crime abound. And justice prevails however it may. Transitions in the montage after Michael killed two of his first marks in the eatery explain exactly how the family works. One scene shows a family member playing the piano, then cuts artfully to another of a dead body. The piano player tranquillize playing directly above the body. A spectacular illustration of how the family mastered the art of playing others.The opening line I believe in the States (spoken by the undertaker, no less)-contrasted later in the film by another scene in which one of the family appears to be peeing on the Statue of Liberty, seen in the distance. So much for believing in America after all. The feel of viewing the world through dark sunglasses on an already cloudy twenty-four hour period versus the bright, relaxed feeling of the Sicilian scenes creates even more contrast and confusion. The characters hidden from the viewers eye in the United States, while Michael hides in Sicily. Images of these scenes prevail in viewers minds, taking us to a happier time and place while we wonder what the Corleone family has up their sleeves in America.The Godfather grants favors- as a self-benefit of course- because the favors control those whom that they are meant for. Corleone has apt(p) favors, but those who have received them will be in his debt and one day, theyre afraid, they will be called upon to make-good the favor of the Godfather. Crime merely illustrates the degree of power this family holds. arrogate Corleone can make it happen- with offers that can not be refused. People are killed just to show who is boss. Even the raspy voice in which the Godfather grants the favors lends to a stupendous sense of power, as does his sharply shaped, well-manicured mustache. Michaels injury transitions his speech and he begins to speak like his father- his power becomes obvious. At the baptism of Connie and Carlos son, the film cuts to show the murders Michael has ordered. The patriarchs of the quin families. The final montage artfully suggests that the murders and baptism occur simultaneously.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Bill Clinton Rhetorical Settings, Strategies, and Paradoxical PopularityEveryone knows what he did with Monica Lewinsky. They watched him shake his finger and lie to their face on national television. They heard his compact to be forthcoming with the truth, and head about how he patiently hair-split his way through four hours of grand jury testimony. Why is he still hither? The answer lies in a combination of Clintons rhetorical strategy and extrinsic circumstances. Bill Clintons rhetoric is two-fold. His problem is unique in that he must communicate in two different forumsin a domain background to the American people and in a legal context to the House and Senate. This presents some unique problems. Although the two arenas are different, they are mixedwhat the President says publicly can be held against him legally, and what he says in court is presented to the public through the media. Clintons challenge is to develop rhetoric that is optimum for the arena it is delivered in, but compatible with the other arenas rhetoric as well. In both situations, Clinton is always in control of what he is saying neither reporters nor jurors can put him on the run, or catch him in a be amiss he cannot adequately explain, refute, or deny. Although the tone of his public and legal rhetoric sometimes conflict, they are effective nonetheless. We will begin by examining his public rhetoric. The answer of Clintons public rhetoric is to win the support of the American people, relative to the Republicans and the Independent Counsel. The support of the people will ensure the eventual cooperation of the House and Senatewho are directly responsible to the public for their jobs. Because Clinton is speaking to a broad and... ...tp//www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/resources/1998/clinton.jones/C-SPAN Website http//www.c-span.org/guide/ executive director/investigation/articles.htmC-SPAN President Clintons Testimony Text http//www.c-span.org/guide/executive/investigation/video_text/C-SPAN Presidential Testimony http//www.c-span.org/guide/executive/investigation/0998.aspgj1C-SPAN 81 Questions to the President http//www.c-span.org/guide/executive/investigation/clinton112798.htmC-SPAN White House Trial roll to the Senate http//www.c-span.org/guide/executive/investigation/whtrialmemorandum.htmGallup Poll Websitehttp//www.gallup.com/poll/indicators/indmedia.asphttp//www.gallup.com/poll/trends/ptopinion.asphttp//www.gallup.com/poll/trends/ptrateecon.aspHouse of Representatives Directory http//clerkweb.house.gov/mbrcmtee/mbrcmtee.htm
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Smallville is a city just like any other city in the world. It has crime, pollution, and kind inequalities. However citizens everywhere are dreaming of the future. The reason people came to Smallville, or America, in the first place was to live the American Dream. This idea is that if a individual works hard enough they can be or achieve anything they want. However, the current system of selfishness and ignorance of the masses has led to the destruction of this idea. In order for these dreams to survive, Smallville inevitably to promote change. There needs to be more information about the effects people have on their communities and the environment. There needs to be a shift towards long-term sustainability. Before there can be greener technology, ecologically friendly businesses, or sustainable energy citizens need to change their outlook on life. Every individual needs to realize their role in the community. There needs to be more emphasis on people living local, take in local, and working local. The more localization and less globalization there is the better. The more people use what is readily available to them the more they will realize how grievous it is not to waste. In order for communities to get a long every individual needs to be respected. There needs to be social equivalence between men and women, different ethnicities, and an acceptance of the LBGTQ community. Once this is achieved, the New American Dream will be born. This new idea will include creation anything you want to be while helping others reach the same goal. Smallville needs to take the steps towards a more informed and aware society so people can achieve their dreams while not destroying the dreams of others around the world.In order for Smallville to r... ...rt. Accepting the gay person Rental accommodation in the community. journal of Homosexuality 36.2 (1998) 31. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.Page explains the struggles an LBGTQ citizen has when finding a place to live freely in a community. It shows that there needs to a major acceptance of the couple or even individuals who are gay by the community in order for the person to feel welcome. People ordinarily do not like to live where they do not feel welcome. This will help me show where major change needs to be inwardly the social realm of society. If people cannot accept each other they cannot join as a community and eventually fix other problems that require cooperation. This articles except bias is justified because it shows real stories of people being harassed. It does not give merit to the side that says these people are really the problem.
After watching the 2005 State of the Union address. I think that the president, Mr. George W. Bush, has made it put one across to the Speaker of the House, Vice President, Membe4rs of Congress, and the citizens of the United States that he has a clear project to improve the welfare of the United States in present days and days to come.The President put forth that he has now a plan for a budget that holds discretionary spending below inflation, makes tax relief permanent, and to cut the dearth in half by the division 2009. The principle to his budget is, Taxpayer money must be spent wisely, or not at whole. It was also verbalize that education is a very important part of this nation and that the standards of the schools need to be raised, so both high school diploma is a tatter to success. Later on he speaks of keeping young small fryren and adolescents out of gangs and dangerous violence and encourages that more people be involved in a childs life by increasing the number of programs to improve literacy and sports. He told of the nation wide effort to do this that would be lead by the firstborn Lady, Laura Bush.Also so the healthcare and costs of health care for lower income families was brought to attention. The President stated that the costs of healthcare should be made affordable to all families that need it. Stating that it should be available to people of every financial status and that on that point be a community health care center for every needy community. And that information technology should be improved so that fewer errors are made as well as needless costs. He believes that at that place should be association health care plans for small business owners and their employees and many measures to decrease healthcare costs.The President talked to the friendly Security system and how if it is unreformed that it will sole(prenominal) lead to its own bankruptcy. He assured those that are now receiving or will be receiving Social Securit y in the near future that their Social Security would not be affected in any way. The President would like to prevent the deterioration of the Social Security system. According to the facts provided by the President, as of now there are a diminishing number of workers paying an increasing amount of benefits to an increasing number of retirees. If it continues to be like this in the year 2018 the system would be paying out more than it takes in and in the year 2027... ...S. needs to be kept safe and they recognized the men and women who aid in the unformed services of the United States. The Democrats are shocked though that the President did not and has not thus far put forth a clear plan to end our presence in Iraq. They believe that one the responsibility of Iraqi security should be put in the hands of the Iraqis, ii that Iraqs economy needs to be increasingly developed and lastly that regional diplomacy needs to be intensified. They also announced that although the President ac knowledges that there is a threat to national security that he has taken no action to correct it. Also they tell of how the President has failed to present a plan to protect America from terrorism.In summary the Democrats believe that the President has backed up his words with action and that they promise to correct this problem as exceed they can. In conclusion I agree with the President on many views because it seems to me that he has plans to improve the U.S. for the best. But I believe that even though there are conflicts in the views of the President and the Democrats that there will be a compromise that will result in the improved wellbeing of the United States.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Raising ArizonaIn the movie Raising Arizona a lot of Archetypes (a pattern consisting on literary elements found in tout ensemble literature regards) are used throughout. Ethan and Joel Coen turned a serious subject like kidnapping, into a hysterical comedy. The use of archetypes are strong, the movie is basically single big archetype. The uses are archetypes are found withinthe language, plot, and character. When looking at the different archetypes they all seemed to fall under the category of characters. The three characters that are the strongest points of archetypes are Linard Smalls, Nathan Arizona, and H.I. McDonnough.Linard Smalls has a rough edge to him. He is the evil guy of the story, or the biker of the apocalypse. The outfit he wears is tired and irresolute. It contains furs and leathers off all sorts of animals, and a hawk skull is worn around his neck. Along with the worn outfit he wears a layer of caked on dirt and debris that tell of where he has been. In introdu cing himself to Nathan Arizona he calls himself a man hunter, or tracker of sorts. Some say dismantle part hound dog. When some dink breaks out of the joint or skips bail Im the onethey call. This evil bad guy is willing to turn good for a small price of fifty-thousand dollars. If Nathan Arizona wont pay, someone in the black market will. in the end Linard is killed by one of his own grenades. He lead to his own death. Nathan (Huffhinds) Arizona is a funny character. Even composition his son is missing business is as usual at Unfinished Arizona. While he is being interviewed in the beginning he isnt even sure of which of his children where taken. When asked which child was taken his responds was Nathan Jr. I think. All through the movie it seems that all Nathan is concerned about is his business. When Linard offers to help he refuses his help and threatens him with the cops. H.I. McDonnough has the nearly going on. he is bad gone good, and then gone good to gone bad again. We sta rt off in the beginning with his introducing himself. He is a repeat offender of the law. he robs convenient stores and somehow always manages to let himself be caught. When he is brought to jail he finds a pretty desert charge Ed (Edwina). The bad guy, H.
Raising azimuthIn the movie Raising Arizona a lot of Archetypes (a pattern consisting on literary elements found in all literature regards) are used throughout. Ethan and Joel Coen creaseed a serious humble like kidnapping, into a hysterical comedy. The use of archetypes are strong, the movie is basically one big archetype. The uses are archetypes are found withinthe language, plot, and character. When looking at the different archetypes they all seemed to fall under the category of characters. The three characters that are the strongest points of archetypes are Linard Smalls, Nathan Arizona, and H.I. McDonnough.Linard Smalls has a rough edge to him. He is the evil guy of the story, or the biker of the apocalypse. The outfit he wears is tired and worn. It contains furs and leathers off all sorts of animals, and a hawk skull is worn around his neck. Along with the worn outfit he wears a socio-economic class of caked on dirt and debris that tell of where he has been. In introduci ng himself to Nathan Arizona he calls himself a man hunter, or tracker of sorts. Some say even disjoint hound dog. When some dink breaks out of the joint or skips bail Im the onethey call. This evil bad guy is willing to turn beloved for a small price of fifty-thousand dollars. If Nathan Arizona wont pay, someone in the black market will. in the end Linard is killed by one of his stimulate grenades. He lead to his own death. Nathan (Huffhinds) Arizona is a funny character. Even while his son is missing business is as usual at marginal Arizona. While he is being interviewed in the beginning he isnt even sure of which of his children where taken. When asked which child was taken his responds was Nathan Jr. I think. All through the movie it seems that all Nathan is concerned about is his business. When Linard offers to help he refuses his help and threatens him with the cops. H.I. McDonnough has the most going on. he is bad gone good, and then gone good to gone bad again. We start off in the beginning with his introducing himself. He is a repeat offender of the law. he robs convenient stores and somehow always manages to allow himself be caught. When he is brought to jail he finds a pretty desert flower Ed (Edwina). The bad guy, H.
Monday, May 27, 2019
The Effects Of Scientific Discoveries And DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theories To Thomas HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s: Ã¢â¬ÅHapÃ¢â¬Â
The poem will be interpreted that the agony of the writer will diminish only(prenominal) if he will identify someone who is the source of every the agony that he suffered. He was looking for somebody to blame for his shortcomings, agonies, pains, and suffering (Davidson). The presence of somebody in existence will be beneficial to him so that he can blame and point to it all the antagonism shaped by all the pain that he experience (Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)). But frustrations set in for him.He was unable to find out somebody that existed to blame after ( perish). He was non able to prove that there is someone that controlled all the possibilities that happened to his life. Later on, he only said that all was a product of ignorant possibilities. Just like he was only tripped. Accidental possibility is liable for his agony was the focus of the poem and there is no scientific reason female genital organ everything that is happening to ones life. Just like Jesus Christ, he exists in the minds of many people but his biological proof is not to that degree clear.The church created him as super natural being but in fact he never existed. Centuries had passed but no one can vindicate that he indeed existed. It was all a product of stories that was passed through generations. Stories that later on became factual in the beliefs of people. It is only a myth that had eventually create like a principle or a law that is unbreakable through time. A principle or a law that can be acceptable even we are already in the information age.This mindset is opposite to the idea of biological theory that all things came from something, evolved and develop through time. And not just a single possibility that we keep on believing although we know that it is not true. Darwins Theory was a product of science that is much believable than legends (Charles Darwin). It is a result of biological evolution with scientific basis. Scientific basis that is more reliable than methodological or logical basis.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
To what extent does empirical evidence on corporate objectives support the predictions of Baumols Sales Maximisation Hypothesis?In Neo-Classical economic scheme of a firm, the owners of a firm ar involved in the twenty-four hours to day running of the firm, and therefore their chief(prenominal) desire is profit maximisation. In reality firms are approximately likely run by film directors and not by the owners. Because of this there is a lack of goal congruence among the two. Baumol (1959) suggests that manager controlled firms are much likely to have gross sales revenue maximisation as their main goals rather than profit maximisation favoured by stockholders.He shows that there are several explanations for the managerial emphasis on sales maximisation rather than maximising profits sources of debt closely monitor sales of firms and are more giveing to finance firms with growing or large sales figures lay- off necessitated by fall in sales leads to industrial unrest and un favourable investiture climate and with decreased sales (and consequently decreased market tycoon) the firm enjoys lesser powers to adopt effective competitive tactics. As well as managers power and prestige and even salaries are more closely cor link with sales as to profits. Judged in this perspective, sales maximisation can be said to be the independent objective in managerial decision making, where self-will and management are clearly separated.This review of evidence will examine the advantages and limitations of Baumols theory on sales-maximisation. The majority of empirical evidence shows that there little correlation between the remuneration of top managers and the profit performance of their comp alls, instead sale revenue is seen as the major contributor to the salaries of managers. McGuire et al. (1962) tried to test Baumols contention that managers salaries are much more closely related to scale of operations of the firm than with profitability. They devised simple c orrelation coefficients between executive income and sales revenue and profits over the seven-year period 1953-9 for 45 of the largest 100 industrial corporations in the US. Their research showed that the correlation between salaries and sales was much greater than with profits. They recognise that there are serious limitations with using simple correlation analysis and the fact that correlation does not necessarily intimate causation. Due to this the research they done cannot be proved to be conclusive. D. R. Roberts found that executive earnings are correlated closely with the size of sales and not the level of profits. He used a cross section of 77 american firms for the period 1948-50.This evidence supports Baumols claim that managers have strong reason to postdate expansion of sales rather than increase profits. Conyon and Gregg (1994) produced a study of 177 firms between 1985 and 1990, it showed that pay of the top executives in large companies in the UK was most strongly r elated to relative sales growth (i.e. relative to competitors). They also found that it was only weakly related to a long term performance measure (total shareholder returns) and not at all to current accounting profit. Furthermore, growth in sales resulting from takeovers was more highly rewarded than internal growth. This evidence supports baumols presumption that sales maximisation is better related than profit, to executive rewards and corporate performance. Profitability and executive pay appear to be largely unrelated, suggesting that other managerial objectives might be tending(p) priority e.g. sales revenue. However total remuneration packages for top executives may be linked to profitability, helping to align the interests of managers more closely to the interests of shareholders.Shipley (1981), in a major study concluded that only 15.9% of 728 UK firms questioned are true profit maximisers. The majority of the firms answered that the aim of their firms is for satisfactory profits. Hornby (1994) conducted a study off 77 Scottish companies and found that only 25% of the respondents are profit maximisers according to the Shipley test. And again the majority of the firms preferred satisfactory profits to profit maximisation. Although the study tells us little about sales maximisation, Shipley found that it was ranked fourth among principle pricing objectives, and nearly half the firms included sales revenue as at least part of their set of objectives. Larger companies were the ones that cited sales revenue as their principal goal. Since larger companies have a greater separation between ownership and management control, this lends support to Baumols theory. Marby and Siders (1966/7) computed correlation coefficients between sales and profits over 12 years, 1952-63, for 120 large American organisations. Zero or negative correlations between profits and sales would support Baumols hypothesis.The findings showed positive significant correlations between s ales revenues and profits. This does not necessarily contradict Baumols hypothesis as sales and profits are positively correlated in Baumols model up to the point of maximising profits. Even when they concentrated on reliable data from 25 companies which they thought had been operate at scales of output beyond the levels corresponding to maximum profit. Correlations between profits and sales were still mostly positive. This evidence is interpreted as refuting the sales-maximisation hypothesis. These studies postulate the reason for and against Baumols theory of sales-maximisation. Although there have been many studies conducted to test Baumols hypothesis, the empirical evidence is not conclusive in favour for or against the sales-maximisation hypothesis.Many argue that Baumols theory has many flaws, such persons are M H Peston and J R Wildsmith. Behavioural theory opposes the idea of a firm seeking to maximise any objective. Management are more likely to hold a set of minimum tar gets to hold the various stakeholder groups in balance. In practice, profit maximisation in the long term is a major goal for firms, but sales revenue is an important short term goal, though even here a profit target may still be part of the goal set. A widely used technique in the management of larger firms, portfolio planning, would bet to support the behaviourist view that no single objective will usefully help predict firm behaviour in a accustomed market.In Neo-Classical Economic theory of a firm it suggests, the owners of a firm are involved in the day to day running of the firm, and therefore their main desire is profit maximisation. Managers are supposed to maximise shareholders wealth by investment means such as CAPM, NPV and ARR. This is the traditional means for the modern day manager to increase shareholder wealth. Agency theory explains that shareholders and managers have a relationship which is crucial to the modern firm. Managers run the company on behalf shareholde r and shareholders will reward them with high salary. However this is not always the case as human nature dictates that self-interest, wealth, and power will come into the equation. Managers may start grammatical construction empire, maximise sales and take on long term and complicated projects which only they understand and this will make it difficult for shareholders to sack them.This is typical of most western economies and former chief executive officer of News international James Murdoch argues in Mctaggart lecture 2007, the only reliable perpetual guarantor of independence is profits signalling that maximising profits is the only compass to measure success. This is reflective of the neoclassical economic theory and this essay will examine the advantages and limitations of sales maximisation. . business for the theory of sales maximisation but there is serious limitations and that is the behavioural difference between long run profit maximisation and sales maximisation that there are no conclusive econometric tests as the difference is very subtle.Therefore there has to be more future research into testing what the key differences are between sales and profits. Also there has to be one to one interviews into the psychology of Managers in the firms that they running as some argue for profits whilst some argue for sales e.g. James Murdoch speech. The use of postal questionnaires for use in studies can bring evidence that is not In digest that is conducted for Baumols hypothesis empirical evidence is not conclusive in favour for and against the sales maximisation hypothesis.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In the fateful spring and early summer of 1940 the peck of Britain clustered around their wireless sets to hear a un partageable and uplifting speech from their new ready rector, Winston Churchill. On whitethorn 13th, having just assumed the burden of power from a, weak and co contenddly Neville Chamberlain, Churchill promised a regime of blood, toil, tear and sweat. On June 4thAfter the evacuation of the defeated British Army from Dunkirk, he p directged, We shall fight on the beaches. On June 1eighth he proclaimed that nvirtuosotheless if the British Empire were to last for a thousand days, this would be remembered as its finest hour. Over the course of the ensuing months Britain al star defied the vast conquering appetites of Hitlerism and, though strikingly outclassed in the air, repelled the Luftwaffes assault with a digful of gallant fighter pilots. This chilling engage custodyt-The Battle of Britain-thwarted Nazi schemes for an invasion of the island fortress and was thus a hinge event in the great global conflict we now call World War II.Before the start of World War II Winston Churchill had already completed some great achievements, which some nation could non complete if they were allowed to live twice. When Winston Churchill was born in 1874 his p arnts did not fall in any beat for him and he spent most of his time with his nanny. In school he rebelled and had no time for Maths, Latin or Greek, the school he attended was disk on the outskirts of London. He did not get on well with the other students and he recalls how he once had to hide behind a tree bit fellow students threw cricket balls at him. After this he vowed to be strong, as strong as any one(a) could be. He later entered the over-embellished Military School at Sandhurst and passed with honours.When he was eighteen Churchill jumped shoot a bridge and fell 29 feet whilst being chased by his brother and cousin, thus showing his strength and determination. composition doing this he ruptured a kidney and was unconscious for three days and could not work for twain months.Then when Churchill turned twenty, his father died and shortly after Churchill was appointed as second lieutenant in the 4th Queens Own Hussars, a regiment of the British Army.As he turned twenty-one Churchill reported on military happenings throughout the world in countries such as Cuba where he travelled with the Spanish Army. In 1896 when his regiment was sent to India, he secured a transient transfer to the turbulent North West Frontier where a tribal insurrection was under way.When the Boer War (1899-1902) broke out in South Africa he went as a journalist, was captured by the Boers while defending an ambushed train and imprisoned in a military prison. His subsequent escape made him a interior(a) hero. In 1900 he was pick out to Parliament as a member of the Conservative Party. Churchills support of free trade once against Joseph Chamberlains tariff proposals led to his defectio n in 1904 to the Liberal Party.Through out these years he wrote and published five books, which were all based on his accounts and newspaper articles, they were real in(predicate) and echoed his oratorical skills, which later turn up a great success.When war broke out in 1914 Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty and already a major subject atomic number 18a figurehead. As Europe was thr bear into stalemate Churchill strongly suggested a huge flanking attack of Turkey through the Dardanelles. But his attempt to force the straits using only ships floundered, leading to the awful Gallipolli landings and costing Churchill his job. Instead of laying low Churchill pulled himself together and joined the Western Front. In January 1916 he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel authoritative the 6th Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers. Between 1922 and 1924 Churchill left the Liberal Party and rejoined the Conservative Party. To his surprise he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in S tanley Baldwins government, a position he held until the Tory defeat in 1929.During the 1930s Churchill fell out with Baldwin over Indias greater self-government and was yet again more isolated in politics. His dire warnings about Hitler and the dangers of the appeasement policy fell on deaf ears. Churchill had been out of the government for nearly ten years by the time war broke out in September 1939. Chamberlain was furious at the fact that Churchills theory had been proved correct. The mood of the people and Parliament changed so Chamberlain reluctantly made Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty.Winston Churchill possessed such impressive oratorical skills that historian Arnold Toynbee believed his wartime speeches were absolutely essential to the Allied achievement in WWII. During the darkest days of the war, Churchills words, so expertly crafted, so superbly delivered, buoyed the spirits, and restored the resilience of the beleaguered English people. When the U.S. Congress vot ed to confer honorary American citizenship on Churchill in 1963, President Kennedy said, He mobilized the English language and sent it into battle.There is no doubt that some of Winston Churchills ideas were impractical and extremist, scarcely on the other plenty some of them were real well thought out and took a lot of planning and preparation. He was surely right that the generals were slow and tried to plan their attacks to solidly. Without Churchills eagerness Britain would have fallen back into an even more defensive state.Had the war ended in 1940 (as some people hoped it would, even though this would of meant sacrificing Poland in the light of Czechoslovakia) we would have never known Churchill as he is known today, he would have been an average First Lord with part responsibility for the cumbersome trials of the Norwegian campaign. By a strange turn of events, this increased failure made Neville Chamberlain extremely unpopular and gave Winston Churchill the perfect oppo rtunity to stake his claim. On the 8th of May 1940 the Commons met for a meeting over the poor performance of the Governments campaign. After a powerful speech from Lloyd George, Chamberlain resigned. On May the 10th the phoney war ended when Germany invaded France and the lower countries, Churchill was announced as the new Prime Minister.Churchills reign begins.Churchill was chosen for the job of Prime Minister not for his appeasement, but for his all round knowledge and past experience making him perfect for the job. An example of this is his days in Cuba where he miraculously get away from the group holding him and was pronounced a national hero. His survival and leadership in WW I made him an asset to the British Government. He was brave, had no concern of Hitler, and was opinionated from the start to start him down. His training at the Military School and his past education gave him more than enough qualifications for this situation. He was the man they had been waiting for .C.V. for Winston Churchills War Experience1874 Born1888-92 Harrow School (a ordinary school)1893-95 Sandhurst Military Academy1895-99 Soldier1899 Journalist in South Africa1900 Elected Conservative MP1904 Joined the Liberal Party1905-08 Junior Minister1908-15 Cabinet Minister (held 4 different posts)1917-22 Cabinet Minister (held 3 different posts)1922-24 Fails to be elected MP1924 Returns to the Conservative Party and elected MP1924-29-Cabinet Minister (Chancellor of the Exchequer)1929-39 MP on backbenches1939-40 Cabinet Minister1940-45 Prime Minister1945-51 Leader of the Opposition1955-65 Prime Minister1955-65 Retirement until deathThe people needed a leader and if they were going to be put through the britches of war then they needed somebody powerful and determined, that person was Churchill. The people trusted Churchill due to his past experience and history of wartime situations. His repertoire of good deeds included the Battle Of Dunkirk, where he in addi tion visited bombed areas and offered people his sympathy. He also had strong relationships with other countries, which later came to his advantage. Strong alliance with Russia made him a partner in war duties.All of this would be enough, but Churchill also gave the public faith with his magnificent oratorical skills, which boosted British hopes and led them more determined into the bloody war. The Newspapers were also very unbiased towards Churchill and back up him as their leader a good example of this is Source 7 where the title is This Is The Man with a picture of Churchill by its side. Posters were also procedured to break dance Churchill a strong motion-picture show, they used pictures of him as a bulldog and as a cowboy (Sources 9 & 11) to present Churchill with the image of a strong and intrepid man, and this again was used to boost their faith in him. These all helped boost his image and made people respect and trust in him.Three men in this booklet have put down Churc hill and they are Charmley, David Irving, and Clive Ponting. These men are mere historians working off the basis of facts and articles from the time this means that what they presuppose, their opinions are not totally accurate making them unreliable sources. I will start off with the information presented by Charmley, he has mixed affects on Churchill, although he recognises Churchills achievements, he always finds away to put him down, here he says,Lord Selbourne . . . had been impressed with his vision and power of drive and thought courage was his great asset but the motive power is always self and I dont think he has any principles. He was clever but quite an devoid of judgement.Also,For Churchill to castigate the Admirals for their lethagy and complete absence of positive effort in failing to come up with a workable plan is a fatal inability to distinguish what was practical and what was not . . .The first quote shows how Churchill had impressed Lord Selbourne, but Charmley doubts his decision and questions Churchills principals and says he is void of judgement. This is not true as in World War II Churchill must have had to make many a judgement to stay on upper side of the enemy judgment is an act which requires great skill and the art of knowing what your opponent may be thinking. One example of Churchills judgement skills is a time before the war when he told Neville Chamberlain that Hitler was not to be trusted, but Chamberlain ignored him thinking heartsease could be achieved, later Churchills judgement was proved correct.Quote two tells us how Churchill criticises the Admirals for their complete lack of effort and ideas being produced, and that the ones being produced are not good enough. He then goes on to say that it is Churchills fault for not being able to distinguish the difference between a practical, well thought out idea, to an idea that was completely imperceptive. This is suggesting he cannot distinguish the difference between a good o r bad idea, which once again is incorrect and is used to make him appear a man who leaves everything to his Generals.Charmley always tried to create an image of Churchill as a man who had no idea of what he was doing, which is untrue as he alone godly and led millions of men not only to death, but also to victory, something Chamberlain or other political leaders could not have done. Chamberlain had the ideal idea of peace and love where Churchill knew war was the only way forward, showing his vast experience over Chamberlain and Charmleys ridiculous comments.Charmley although criticizing makes a few good points against Churchills ideas and plans,At this stage of the war Churchill grossly overestimated what could be achieved by sea power. It was Churchill who fixed upon the Narvik as the object of the Allied campaign.The Norwegian campaign was flawed in apprehension and muddled in execution. The command structures susceptibility have been designed to result in chaos.Charmley here outlines the flaws in Churchills plan, he tells us that the plan was overestimated and in earnest structured and that Churchills campaign had flaws in it from the beginning, showing that Churchills ideas were not all good ones and he was not always the great leader people said he was.Charmley then describes the End Of Glory celebrations,Pursuing the slogan Victory at all costs, Churchill was casually indifferent to what the costs might be.Churchill stood for the British empire, for British independence and for an anti-socialist vision of Britain. By July 1945 the first of these was on the skids, the second was dependent solely on America and the third had just vanished in a Labour victory.Charmley at this point tells us that Churchill was celebrating his victory but the costs could have been very different. What Churchill stood for in 1945 was then either on a down, relying on America or vanished in the Labour victory. So everything Churchill once stood for was now gone.For Charmle y this is was a good point about Churchill as it reflected the victory and exuberate that was in the country.Charmley then obtains a source from another interpreter such as himself and analyses it into what he thinks the truth is,Whatever Churchill may or may not have done wrong, he had won the war, obtained the American alliance and helped save us all from the Soviets.Charmley interprets it as,Churchill did not win the war the Russians did with help from the Americans. Churchill did not bring the Americans into the war, the Japanese and Germans did. Indeed, Churchills first ally was the Soviet Union, an unlooked-for-one who provided the western allies with a real problem when it came to claiming their war was a sort of crusade against totalitarianism.This sums up Charmleys image of Churchill, he always found faults in his plans and ideas. He outlines how the war formed itself around Churchill and that he did not win it single-handed as people seemed to think, Charmley shows that i t had little to do with him. It all happened by the incidents around him, he just amplified them as his own achievements so he could mould the perfect image for later generations to come to know him by, as proved by Clive Ponting who is my next historian.Clive Ponting shows Churchills good and bad side, but he tends to favour against leaders and has an anti-establishment view. His two bad sources come of the Naval war ships,In dealing with the U-boat threat Churchill continued with the sanguine opinion formed before the war that on that point was no longer a menace, he therefore opposed the convey system, wanting instead to reduce the number of escorts, and concentrate on what he optimistically described as hunting packs of destroyers to attack the U-boats while in transit. The results were almost a complete failure, although the merchant ships sinkings were, at about 10,000 tons a month.The Royal Navy tactics which rarely detected a U-boat and their attacks when they happened were largely ineffective, about a 5% success rate.The Americans gave 50 not 96 ships and they were unadornedly given in return for bases. The bases were in seven colonies not three and were not commercial facilities but military bases on very long leases (99 years). And they had obtained an explicit assurance that, in the worst circumstances, the fleet would sail to North America, the one commitment Churchill had rejected ever since he became Prime Minister. In practice the US destroyers turned out to be of little immediate value. Only 9 out of the 50 were in service by the end of 1940 and only 30 by May 1941.These sources are very lengthy but go into great depth on the situation of the warships and trading. It shows how Churchills plans were a complete failure and how the success rate was minimal for the Naval fleet. He wasted bases and money on warships, none very effective, when overall the British Navy was meant to be one of the strongest in the world. Churchill also shows disregar d towards other peoples opinions. He shows this when he says, Stop grinning at me you bloody apeTo Captain Talbot when he dares to contradict him, Talbot was dismissed at 10 minutes notice, although this cannot be verified, as Ponting was not there at the time.Ponting then describes Churchills story of leadership in a good and bad way showing his mixed views of Churchill.After May 1940 he had come to symbolise the nations resistance and had been promptly endorsed as a wartime leader. In 1945 Churchill remained true to his limited view of politics.The change in years still showed how Churchills ways of tackling the problem at hand and his views of peoples ideas had not changed and that he had stuck to the same attitude throughout the war. Ponting thought this showed Churchill as a powerful leader who would not yield on the work he was doing, but saw it through until it was finished. Ponting then says,His inability to provide an inspiring message to the nation in the last years of th e war demonstrated by his lack of broadcasts only increased popular perceptions that he was not the man to win the peace.When I first started to read this it appeared to me it was criticizing Churchill as it starts off negatively, but as you read towards the end you see how this was to Churchills advantage as it won him respect and people thought of him as the man that was involved and not afraid to fight.This was well written by Ponting as it reflected Churchills image.This next section could be called Churchills image,Churchill certainly saw his biographers coming and was determined to mould the view that later generations would have of his life.This and various other quotes from the paragraph, show that Churchill would not let his hard work and devotion to the war go forgotten and wanted to make sure people heard about his accomplishments for many years to come. Churchill with his oratorical skills virtually wrote the biographies for the publisher.Clive Ponting is a good histor ian as he uses the facts and evidence of the events he discusses and does not have a one-sided view, he uses multiple views, good and bad, giving reason and evidence. Unlike Charmley who has a very anti-establishment view of Churchill and leaders in general.We now come to our last historian David Irving. There is only one source in this book from David Irving but I felt it relevant to include him as it contained pertinent arguments and claims,Churchill thought he was somehow above international law. The situation he argued gave Britain the right and duty to abrogate the very laws she sought to reaffirm by attacking German ships in Norwegian waters forcing the French to transfer German POWs to Britain attacking the French fleet and recommending the use of dum dum bullets and poison gas.Irving points out Churchills defiance in obeying the rules they were trying to re-establish. Fair play was not an option to Churchill it shows how he went into international waters without permission and imperil his allies into giving him what he wanted, he liked to be in control of what was happening. Having the prisoners of war also gave Britain a cautious edge in faux pas France was taken over Britain still had a bargaining option. This gave Churchill the image of being a bully and ruthless leader, one who took tremendous risks.Irving through only one source manages to show the ruthless and deceitful side of Churchill, showing it was not all just fighting that helped Britain to victory but also his cunning plans. Irving is quite reliable as a source as he uses actual events and does not back these up by peoples comments, meaning it is stringently his feelings on the matter.The other sources in the booklet are just different views of many people who all have their own interpretations, I chose these three as I found them to be the most intriguing and interesting to explain. There are some actual comments from Churchill himself and his colleagues but there are not many of the m. Newspapers and posters just convey a tough image of Churchill, e.g. Churchill as a British Bulldog and a Sheriff.In conclusion I think no matter how you look at Churchill, he will always be considered a great man due to his commitment and encouragement to the armies which gave them hope and determination. He also drove the country through the war, something Chamberlain could not have done.Many of Churchills contemporaries and advisors tried to tell him what to do. He pushed all of these people off and they did not respect him for it, they felt he was over ambitious. The people thought this was the image of a good leader, a strong man who made his own decisions. After the war was over everyone including world leaders, respected him and his decisions however far fetched they seemed at the time. He had got them through this most dangerous and trying time, he was a hero.The Historians I reviewed were correct in some of the things they said, for instance, when they give the good and bad points of Churchill and not just a one-sided view. Some of the quotes Charmleys used were very biased against Churchill and seemed only to focus on the bad points of his career to make him seem a lesser individual. Irvine and Ponting both displayed good reliable points, showing his weaknesses and strengths. I can not call the contemporaries wrong because they do give crucial points, but also none of them actually say whether he was a good or bad leader, leaving the answer open for you to decide, but they do try and influence the way in which you answer. I would say the contemporaries were right in their opinions but everybody including the Historians had different views.Historians are more likely to be critical of Churchill than the people at that time as they were just quick-witted to have won the war and read of his exploits in the newspapers. He to them saved their lives and they considered they owed him a great debt. Historians were not there and did not know the pressures he was under. They criticise him because people say he was a great leader and they try to put him down and show his flaws not just the good points. They show the public the truth about what happened, and what people of the time blanked out, due to victory and patriotism. Here are advantages and disadvantages of Churchills contemporaries and HistoriansAdvantages Censorship, morale, newspapers, and victories. The need to believe in their leader.Disadvantages- Narvik campaign, ignored advisors, impossible ideas, knew about bombings of places such as Coventry, USA took advantage of GB in lend lease agreement.If you notice the advantages are from or to people at the time. Disadvantages are from the historians.I think if you look closely enough into Churchills campaign you will find flaws, but nobody is perfect both the Contemporaries and the Historians have every right to question this but never should they say he was a bad leader, as he got them through and helped win the war, somet hing no one else dared do.
Friday, May 24, 2019
It was December 2, 1804, with over 400 musicians and singers performing. The world famous cathederal, Notre Dame, was filled. All eyes were set upon pile Bonaparte. This Corsican native Australian slowly ascended the steps to the alter alone, siezing the crown with his own hands. He held it aloft and brought it to rest on his head. Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France that day. Napoleon was an everday guy. He was a 5? 2? lieutenant who was later ranked a general. He married Josephine DeVorne. At first, Napoleon wasnt very liked amongst plastered parts of Europe.Mothers would say to their kids at night to make them sleep a little nightmare raising lullaby Baby baby, naughty baby, hush you scwaling subject i say, hush your scwaling or it may be Bonepart that pass this way. Napoleon was nothing more then an average Corsican man with a eggbeater mind. Working was a passion for Napoleon. In 1805, Napoleon planned to cross the English channel. Much like well-nigh other c onquerors in Eurpopes solid ground Napoleon had one goal in mind, to conquer all of Europe. As he crossed the channel to invade Great Britain, with 2,000 ships, and 200,000 soldiers, he soon met victory.With that in mind, Russia and Austria wouldnt allow Napoleon to roam with triumph. Soon after the Grand Army was put to the test against the French. The Russian army was k straightn as the strongest and most feared around. Russia and Austrias plan to win was by outnumbering Napoleon 21. France was looking pretty weak and had no chance of defeating the Russians and Austrians. and Napoleon saw the flaw in this. The Austrians and Russians were planning to meet half way. Their armies were scattered. So, Napoleon figured if if he was to beat the one army before the devil armies linked up,then his workforce wouldve still stood a chance.Napoleon did just so. He took General Mac (Austrias general) by surprised and conquered them leaving them forced surrendor. 27,000 men surrendered. Mac lost almost half his army. I didnt intend to fight any but England, until your master provoked me said Napoleon. Nothing stood straightaway between Napoleon and Vienna. In 8 days, Napoleon destroyed Austrias army by marching, (200,000 marching men, marched 500 miles in 40 days-defeated Austrias army). On November first Napoleon nothingness his army into Vienna, the capitol of Austria. The emperor was the first to fleed.Leaving behind his palace and gardens free for the enemy. Bonaparte triumphed alongthe streets. Many then stop worshipping Napoleon, such(prenominal) as Ludwig Beethoven. On October 21, British admiral Nelson destroyed Napoleons army, and took along his own life. Napoleon no longer had the Grand army. French stopped challangeing the British army. It was December of 1805, when Napoleon was faced with an even greater challenge. He was now 1,000 miles from Paris, and was in the center of Europe. With enemies from all angles, Europes land was a great cakehole to Napol eons men.With the knowledge that the Russians has once again united with the Austrians in November, this time with 90,000 allies put unneurotic against Frances 75,000 men, Napoleon had one of two choices. He couldve either gone back or to move along foward. Bonaparte wouldve NEVER moved back. So, now Napoleon was to face Alexander I, the emperor of Russia. Alexander I(28 years of age) was very jealous of Napoleon. He believed that it was his destiny to triumph over Napoleon. The war against the Russians seemed impossible.But leave it up to Napoleon, he was a thinker. He had a plan to encourage the enemy to think he was scared. He wanted to lead the enemy to the meshing field of Australit, by making them think Napoleon was weaker then he really was. Once again, Napoleon succeeded. The Russians came to battle by hitting Napoleon on the right (the weaker end) first. Bonaparte wanted them to do exactly that. The Russians fed right into his plan Napoleon had a secret for the Russians. He had previously set up 2 divisons within 70 miles in 2 days to attack the Russians.The attack caught the enemy by surprise and yet gave Napoleon another victory. Napoleon was sort of an artist he planned each battle as if the next move would perfect the whole piece of art, the end of the battle. Napoleon being the whole hearted Corsican man he was. He never allow the power get to his head. Over a duration of time Bonapartes name was being spread all throughtout Europe. He still managed to pull through letters to his wife and he even elected each of his siblings to an office. His brother Joseph to be the king of Naples, Jerome the king of West Falia, Louis the king of Holand.His sister Carolean to be a Queen, pauline a princess, and Alicia a Dutchess. Trough all the battles and victory Napoleon gained much popularity in no time. Yet, he remained a causes boy. He loved his mother and made her Madame Mayor. Josephine and Napoleon were made for eachother. Though, both of them had their own quirrels. Josephine hated all the mistresses Napoleon had. Napoleon hated the habits that Josephine had with pass money. Josephine knew that one day no matter how strong her love was for Napoleon, he wouldve had to divorce her. The day came on November 30, 1809.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Scholar A scholar is a person who is engaged in the artistic creation of learning any branch of information to attain literary or scientific knowledge. He is the man of books and is also known as a scholar who learns from his teacher (Hydroponicsearch. com, 2009). Practitioner He is a, artful person who is engaged in his profession and actually uses his knowledge achieved by exercising his art either habitually or customarily practicing the same (dictionary. net, 2009). A Scholar-Practitioner is a person who juggles in the midst of researching additional knowledge and practicing and experiencing the theory there-off.He continuously updates his learning and contributes to further innovation instructions and making decisions (IPFW. edu, 2009). Practitioner-Scholar In such a situation, a person indulges in a practice based approach which is associated with scholarly inquiry of knowledge. and then it is an associated relationship between theory and practice. It primarily focuses o n clinical practice where by a consumer who researches as a scholar and is also known to be a professional trainer and a practitioner who uses the science of knowledge while dealing with clients (liunet. edi, 2009).A scholar-Practitioner model describes me the best right now As I am related to the profession of teaching, a constant flair for reading and applying the learnt knowledge in the field of teaching. This ultimately shows the connection and the relationship between scholarship activities and practice activities. Thus advancements of educational systems and educational practice can be enhanced by this model. As a learner this model helps in the learning and investigating practical issues while for a professional it serves in providing a framework of research, teaching and servicing these activities (dwb, 2009).In scholar-practitioner model, while differentiating between tames degree and doctoral degree, it is made clear that the very fact of being a student and learning wit hout provision of financial aid go forth indicate the pursuance of masters degree. While in the doctoral learning, it is the practice of the learned art which is mostly associated with provision of a scholarship or financial aid (dwb, 2009 & Kuther, T. 2009).ReferencesDwb. (2009). What is the Scholar-Practitioner Model? Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp//dwb4.unl.edu/iTech/SPModel.htmldictionary.net. (2009). Practitioner. Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp//www.dictionary.net/practitionerHydroponicsearch.com. (2009). Scholar. Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp//www.hydroponicsearch.com/spelling/simplesearch/query_term-scholar/database-/strategy-exactIPFW.edu. (2009). Reflections on Scholar-Practitioner (SP) Standards. Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp//www.ipfw.edu/educ/accreditation/Program_Information_For_Candidates/MS_Reflections_SP_1833checkpoint.doc.Kuther, T. (2009). What is the Difference Between a Masters Degree and a Doctoral Degree?. Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp// gradschool.about.com/od/admissionsadvice/a/masterphd.htmliunet.edu. (2009). The practitioner-scholar model program competencies, goals and objectives. Retrieved March 28, 2009, fromhttp//www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/clas/psych/doctoral/forms/PractitionerScholarModel.pdf
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Critically evaluate the effectiveness of the relevant provisions of the commerce proportion Acts 1998-2011 (and their predecessors) in eliminating generate discrimination on the kingdom of gender within the workplace and thus reducing the gender digest gap. The European Union is founded upon core values including respect for human dignity, freedom and personifyity between men and women. This equateity extends to the workplace where both men and women argon authorise to fitting conditions of employment and pay. terms 20 and 23 of the charter of fundamental rights likewise states that all persons are bear upon before the law and that equation between men and women must be ensured in all areas including employment, work and pay. Despite this the total hourly gender pay gap within the European Union stands at 17. 1% precisely varies from 6%- 34% depending on the member state1. In an attempt to close the gender pay gap in the European Union, various legislation has been dr afted and implemented over the previous forty years.The right to equal pay is inflexible out in Article 157TFEU(formerly Art 141,Art 119) which expressed that each member state shall ensure that the principle of equal pay for staminate and fe anthropoid workers for equal work or work of equal value shall be applied. The subsequent legislation for preventing discrimination in the workplace was unified into Irish law by means of the Anti-Discrimination (pay) act 1974 and the Employment Equality act 1977.The jurisprudence for the right to equal pay is the landmark quality of Defrenne v Sabena2 which saw the European solicit of justice cave in that the right to equal pay was legally binding in agreeing that the complainants right to equal pay derived directly from Article 119(now Art 157TFEU). The law in Ireland is now governed exclusively by the Employment Equality acts 1998-2004 which replaced the acts of 1974 and 1977.Article 8 of the Treaty on the procedure of the European Un ion states that in all its activities the Union shall aim to combat discrimination ground on wakeual urge, racial or ethnic origins, religious belief, disability, long m or sexual orientation. The issue of discrimination in relation to equal pay stub arise both directly and indirectly as has been seen in the lawsuit law and legislation surrounding this area. The case of Gillespie v Health and Social Services Board3 efined discrimination as the application of different rules to parallel situations or the application of the self uniform(prenominal) rule to different situations. Article 2(1) of the Recast equal treatment directive has defined direct discrimination as occurring in a situation where one person is treated less favourably on the curtilage of sex than a nonher is, has been or would be in a comparable to(predicate) situation. A necessary requirement of the test for direct discrimination is a suitable comparator that the complainant can compare themselves to in or der to establish discrimination has occurred.It is then the duty of the tribunal to consider the reasons for selecting that comparator and whether they are suitable as a relevant comparator in the given situation. Section 6(1) (a) of the Employment equality acts allows a person to select a hypothetical comparator as the scope extends to situations where a complainant would be treated less favourably, nevertheless this is not the case when concerning issues relating to pay4. It is important to dividing line that there are exemptions to the prohibition on discrimination.Under surgical incision 25 of the Employment equality acts an employer may be permitted to treat employees differently based on gender. This is only non-discriminatory where the objective is legitimate and proportionate. The Employment equality acts also provide for the employer to promote equal opportunities for both male and female employees. This may tote up in the form of vocational training or improving work conditions which help create a higher skilled workforce and help to reference work imbalances evident in the workforce by the gender pay gap.Section 24 of the Employment Equality Acts allows an employer to implement measures which initially make it easier for an under-represented sex to pursue a vocational activity and also to prevent or compensate for damages in professional charges. Promotion or the advancement of ones career will be dependent on whether that employee is best suited to the position based on their skills and experience and this has been echoed by the European court of justice.Section 24 should be viewed with the understanding that female employees are not automatically entitled to a promotion and thus a higher rate of pay, but that any measures introduced by the employer are to ensure that equal opportunities are available to both sexes. Section 19(4) of the Employment Equality Acts prohibit indirect discrimination on gender grounds in relation to pay where it states indirect discrimination occurs where an apparently neutral provision puts persons of a particular gender at a particular disadvantage in respect of remuneration compared with early(a) employees of their employer.Its clear from this that indirect discrimination concerns a provision which appears to affect all employees in a unfluctuating but really favours or disfavours a category of employees. In Nathan v Bailey Gibson5 indirect discrimination on the grounds of gender was evident where the complainant had been utilise as an assistant to a machine operator and subsequently applied for his job after he retired. The employer had a closed shop agreement in place with the trade union and hired an unemployed male member of the union after the vacancy became available.The union itself was make up predominantly of male members. The Supreme Court held this amounted to indirect discrimination. Indirect discrimination allows for an employer to defend the imposition of an indirectly discriminatory provision as existence objectively excusable. This is enshrined in section 19(4) which states that indirect discrimination on the grounds of gender will not occur where the act or clause is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.The landmark case of Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Karin Weber von Hartz6 where differential treatment of part clock and full cartridge clip staff relating to pension rights was occurring and the employer attempted to justify the refusal to pay pensions to part time workers on the basis that it was necessary to discourage staff from working part time for economic reasons. The complainant argued that this breached Article 157TFEU in relation to equal treatment relating to pay.The European court of evaluator rejected the argument of the employer but did state that an indirectly discriminatory measure may be justifiable if it is necessary to meet a real need on the part of the empl oyer. The court went on to say that this would occur only if it is appropriate with a view to achieving the objective pursued. In order to understand how the legislation implemented has aided the elimination of pay discrimination, it is first necessary to understand the kernel of pay and ultimately what contains pay.Article 157TFEU provides that both male and female workers are entitled to receive equal pay for equal work, or work which has an equal value and the right of community members to equal pay is provided for in the Employment Equality Acts. This provision has both upright piano and horizontal effect owing to the decision in Defrenne v Sabena, which allows employees to take actions before their national court.The Employment Equality Acts provide a clear and elliptic explanation of the right to equal pay in section 19(1) where it states that It shall be a term of the contract under which A is employed that, subject to the act, A shall at any time be entitled to the same rate of remuneration for the work which A is employed to do as B who, at that or any other relevant time, is employed to do like work by the same or an associated employer. However, both the European Court of Justice and the national courts have held there to be a broad scope as to what constitutes pay.These courts have held that sick pay, travel concessions, grading systems, inconvenient hours supplement, redundancy pay, support pay and share allocations all fall within the scope of pay7. The European court of Justice defined pay in the case of Arberterwohlfahrt der Stadt Berlin v Botel8 where it was say to be all consideration, cash or in kind, whether immediate or future, provided that the worker receives it, albeit indirectly, in respect of his employment from his employer, whether under a contract of employment, by virtue of legislation or on voluntary basis.The European Court of Justice has also considered the less favourable treatment of part time workers which it consider s to be indirect discrimination on the gender ground. The case of Bilka-Kaufhaus features again here as the ECJ held that where a part time employee earns less pay for doing an equal amount of work as an employee working full time then this may constitute indirect discrimination on gender grounds as a vast majority of part time employees are female which is certainly in line with the legislation under section 19(1) of the Employment Equality Acts. cover in relation to pregnancy and maternity leave has resulted in the European Court of Justice determining that any allowances gainful will not constitute pay. Gillespie and ors. V Northern Health and Services get on saw complainants fail in bringing a claim arguing that their employer was in breach of Article 141(now Article 157TFEU) by paying them less than their full salary during maternity leave. It was also the case in North Western Health board v McKenna9 that the ECJ decided a female employee absent from work cod a pregnancy re lated illness is not entitled to maintenance of full pay.This is the case currently but it should be noted that an amendment to Directive 92/85 has been proposed and if passed, would allow for a female employee to obtain her entire salary while on maternity leave subject to a Member state possibly placing a maximum level at the level of national sick pay10. This has not yet come into force due to opposition from various member states primarily on the ground of cost but also limiting maternal(p) rights to mothers rather than to fathers and creating obstacles to the recruitment of women in the workforce.It has been necessary for the ECJ and national courts to determine whether the complainant is doing equal or like work to their chosen comparator. Fortunately, the legislation clarifies the meaning of like work in section 7(1) of the Employment Equality Acts as being 1. The same work undertaken by another person under the same or similar conditions 2. Where the work is of a similar na ture 3. The work is of equal value taking into consideration such matters as skill, physical or mental requirements, responsibility and working conditions.From this it is clear that in order for the complainant to establish they are partaking in like work they must show that they are interchangeable with the comparator at any given moment and without any notice. In the case of Department of posts and telegraphs v Kennefick11, a complaint was made by a female post and telegraph clerk that she was being paid less than her comparator who was doing like work. The employer argued that the male telegraph clerks job description include additional duties which he was seldom asked to perform. The Labour Court in this case refused to be guided y job description and ordered that the female employee was entitled to equal pay. However, it has been held that higher qualifications will justify a party receiving a higher salary. This was evident in the Austrian psychotherapists case12 where a meet ing made up primarily of female psychotherapists who had psychology degrees sought equal pay with medical doctors who were employed as psychotherapists. The ECJ agreed that both parties undertook seemingly identical activities but found that the medical doctors were also qualified to undertake additional activities due to their qualifications.Therefore, the ECJ held that the difference in training and qualifications meant that the two parties were not in a comparable situation. The courts have also been faced with determining situations where the work is similar in nature or equal in value. For example, the case of Dowdall OMahony v 9 female employees13 saw equal pay awarded as the court held that the differences in the positions were found to be of little importance in the context of the work as a whole.When dealing with issues where the work is deemed to be of equal value, it is the function of the court to look at the skill, physical effort and responsibility required to perform the work. In 24 women v Spring Grove Services14 the female employees were employed in the finishing area of the linen maintenance section. They sought to compare themselves with a group of male employees who were employed to work in the wash house.The court subsequently compared the work undertaken by one male employee and one female employee and concluded that the male used more physical effort and skill than the female employee in the course of her work and therefore they were not doing equal work. Section 19(1) of the acts provides that the claimant and the comparator must be employed to do equal or like work by the same or associated employer at that or any other relevant time which under section 19(2 b) is defined as any time during the three years preceding or following the time at which the action is taken.Despite the benefits of the legislative provisions provided in the Employment Equality Acts, there are numerous problems with their effectiveness and enforcement. Despite t he legislation there is a scarcity of discrimination cases relating to pay being taken to national court level and there are a variety of reasons for this. In some situations it is difficult to ascertain the scope of comparison for the wording of certain provisions in the legislation as it is not defined in statutory law, such as the meaning of work of equal value.Another issue is that the concept of the hypothetical comparator is not allowed in most countries and its also the case that the comparator must be employed by the same employer. The problem with this is that locating a real comparator can be difficult in segregated professions where comparators of the opposite sex are rare. In various European states it is the case that the citizens have no faith or trust in the judiciary to appropriately or effectively deal with a case of sex discrimination.Having explored in detail where the relevant provisions of the Employment Equality Acts have been applied to eliminate pay discrimin ation on gender grounds, it is important to note that the employer is entitled to show that the difference of treatment in relation to pay is not indirectly discriminatory but valid on some other ground. This defence is provided in section 19(5) of the Employment Equality Acts. Under this section employers may pay different rates of remuneration to both men and women but it must be justifiable on grounds other than gender.The test for this stems from the BIlka Kaufhaus15 case where the employer is required to show how and why the decision to discriminate was made at that point and it was subsequently decided that retrospective justification was unacceptable. The qualifications of the employee, worker flexibility and length of service may be objective grounds if they can be attributed to the needs of the employer. The case of NUI Cork v Ahern16 concerned a pay differential between male security guards and female phone operators.This was deemed to be justifiable as the female operator s were paid more for doing less work. This was not due to gender as they had originally been doing an increased amount of work but due to family issues was now doing less. This thinking was continued in the case of Dept of Justice, Equality and law reform v CPSU17 where the court held that the department had grounds other than gender for the defrayment of a higher rate to Gardai members performing clerical work compared with civilian clerical workers.Certain posts within An Garda Siochana are reserved for Gardai. Here, the majority of the 761 clerical posts in An Garda Siochana were female. This was deemed to be justifiable for genuine operational reasons and to ensure the continuity of services at all times. Employers may also be able to rely on a defence of market forces where they establish that the payment of a lower wage for some employees is part of the business strategy on economic grounds which can be objectively justified.This was developed in Enderly v Frenchay Health Auth ority18 where a comparison was made between speech therapists who were predominantly women and pharmacists who were predominantly men being paid at a higher rate. The employers argument was that differential pay was due to a shortage of pharmacist candidates and not due to sex discrimination found favour with the court. Despite the legislation, the European gender pay gap still stands at 17. 1%, but there are a variety of innovative ways to help close the gender pay gap19.The Finnish government has coined the concept of an equality pot, which is a sum of money set aside for municipal governments to fund pay rises in low paid, highly educated female sectors as low wages are traditionally paid to female workers in highly feminised branches of the public sector20. This would help to reduce the pay gap and put in place a greater level of equality relating to pay between the two genders. Another method of closing the pay gap is to support the continuity of female employment as they often baffle their employment in order to manage both their family and professional life.This could be done by the reconciliation of both and could be achieved through the provision of shaver care facilities in the workplace ensuring female employees were able to bring their children to work21. It should also be noted that imposing an obligation on male workers to be twisty in child rearing would allow for the continuation of women in employment and would help to close the gender pay gap. References European grammatical gender Equality righteousness criticism-No. 1/2011 Principles of Irish Employment Law Brenda Daly, Michael Doherty 2010,Page 111. Employment Law in Ireland Maeve Regan, page 459 published May 2009 European Gender Equality Law Review No 1/2011, Equality Pay for Men and Women in Europe Anno 2011 The Gender Pay gap on the retreat? Petra Foubert http//epp. eurostat. ec. europa. eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/ 1 European Gender Equality Law Review-No. 1/2011 2 Defrenne v Sabena (1976) ECR 455(C-43/75) 3 Gillespie v Health and Social Services Board (1996) ECR 475 4 Principles of Irish Employment Law Brenda Daly, Michael Doherty 2010, Page 111. 5 Nathan Bailey v Gibson (1998) 2 IR 162 6 (1986) ECR 1607 7 Employment Law in Ireland Maeve Regan, page 459 published May 2009 8 (1992) IRLR 423 9 North Western Health board v McKenna(Case C-191/03) 10 Principles of Irish Employment Law Brenda Daly, Michael Doherty, 2010, p160 11 Department of Posts and Telegraphs v Kennefick EP 9/1979 12 Case C-309/97 (1999) ECR 2865 13 Dowdall OMahony v female employees EP2/1987 14 (1996) ELR 147 15 (1986) C-170/84 16 (2005) SC IE 40 17 (2008) ELR 140 18 (1993) ELR 1-5535 19 European Gender Equality Law Review No 1/2011, Equality Pay for Men and Women in Europe Anno 2011 The Gender Pay gap on the retreat? Petra Foubert 20 European Gender Equality Law Review No 1/2011, Equality Pay for Men and Women in Europe Anno 2011 The Gender Pay gap on the retreat? Petra F oubert 21 European Gender Equality Law Review No 1/2011, Equality Pay for Men and Women in Europe Anno 2011 The Gender Pay gap on the retreat? Petra Foubert
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
The Asian Financial Crisis was a result of massive speculative attacks in the foreign exchange market on local currencies, specifically on East Asian currencies. The problem started with the devaluation of the Thai baht in 1997 which then spread to speculative attacks on other Asian currencies. This resulted in economic crises in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Korea, Singapore, China, and Hong Kong. (Kawai, 1998)The reasons for the spread of economic decline in the countries were easily traced and the resulting make were similar although varying in the degree of intensity. A clear difference amongst Hong Kong and the other Asian countries affected by the 1997-1998 economic crisis, however, was in the way that Hong Kong handled the threat to its economy.Compared to the other Asian countries, Hong Kong was able to maintain its peg when the financial crisis number one broke out. This was, however, maintained at a great cost. Monetary authorities of the country spent approximately US$ 1 zillion in enact to defend the currency. Although other countries also undertook mass efforts to defend their currencies, Hong Kong was the only one to be able to maintain its peg. This, however, was only short-term.The economic attack continued and Hong Kong found itself needing to increase its inflation rate. Other countries such as the Philippines reviveed to this strategy as well in order. What made Hong Kong different in its strategy, however, was the governments habit reversal from being a passive regulator to an active market participant.The government ended up using approximately US$15 billion in buying shares, blue-chip shares, in various companies. This active intervention insured the relative stability of the Hong Kong market as compared to the other Asian markets during that time.2) duck funds, by their very nature, utilize opportunistic trading strategies on a leveraged basis. For a market with a limited liquidity, such as that of Hong Kongs, a low gamble on the part of a large hedge fund could result in a large transaction that could have large-scale effects on the said market.For Hong Kongs economy, there have been numerous instances wherein hedge funds have tried to exploit the local market. This is not to say, however, that Hong Kong has not go under up a valiant effort to protect and maintain the stability of its vulnerable market owing to its small size and low liquidity status.According to Kara burning Bhala (1998), the mechanism employed by hedge funds to try and make money out of Hong Kong involves two steps. Initially, Hong Kong equities and stock-index futures are sold short by speculators.Next, the speculators resort to short-selling the Hong Kong dollar. Short-selling the dollar will force the Hong Kong Monetary Association to try to maintain the peg of the Hong Kong dollar to the US dollar. This would mean resorting to an increase in interest rates and to buying the local currency.Share prices on the stock market thus decrease in value. In these instances, it is clear that all that hedge funds aim to do are to accomplish profit for themselves rather than to contribute to the greater scheme of advancing Hong Kongs economy. They gain profit first from the short selling of the equities and stock-index futures.They gain the difference from the higher priced short-selling of the instruments and the resulting lower cover prices. Hedge funds gain profit secondly from a probable depreciation in the Hong Kong dollar. Again, the difference between the short and cover prices. (Bhala, 1998)Although not all hedge funds are to be frowned upon, as the presence of hedge funds is not an absolute injustice on the market, these instances serve as a warning to the fact that there are markets that can be put under great threat as a result of the presence of hedge funds.ReferencesKawai, M. (1998). The East Asian currency crisis causes and lessons. Contemporary Economy Policy, 16, 157-172Bhala, K. T. (1998). In Prai se of Intervention. Far Eastern Economic Review, 9
Monday, May 20, 2019
Organization husbandry And Change organisational finis a popular only when in like manner a very complex concept has been set as an influential factor affecting the successes and failures of formational change efforts. Organizational destination could be looked at as the pattern of dual-lane valued, beliefs and assumptions considered being the appropriate management to think and act at bottom an musical arrangement (Schneider, 1985).In some other words, subtlety the pattern of sh bed values, beliefs and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way to think and act within an face. Culture is shared Culture helps members solve problems Culture is taught to unfermentedcomers Culture strongly influences air Gener totally(a)y, this shared market-gardening is invisible to the employees and their reading materials are viewed as something unique to the individualtheir ain opinions.People tend to surround themselves with others of like opinions and values, and t hen reinforcing their common beliefs and expectations. Where does organization culture come from? It comes from the Organization founder, vision and mission statement, past practices, Top management attitude and port and through socialization the process that helps employees adapt to the organizations culture to a greater extent quickly and utilely.People/ Employees of the organization perk culture through stories, narratives of significant stillts or actions of people that convey the bosom of the organization, rituals, repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the values of the organization, material symbols, physical assets distinguishing the organization, language, acronyms and jargon of terms, phrases, and word meanings unique(predicate) to an organization. Keeling (1981, p. 8), who offers that culture refers to an individuals theory of what his fel deplorables know, believe and mean, his theory of the code being followed, the game being played, in th e society into which he was born. In a similar framework, Geertz (1973) views culture as a emblematic system (i. e. , shared codes of meaning) that reflects grounds shared by social actors. These definitions all imply that culture affects ways members think, feel, and act. fit to Henry Mintzberg, Culture is the soul of the organization the beliefs and values, and how they are manifested.I think of the structure as the skeleton, and as the bod and blood. And culture is the soul that h greys the thing together and gives it life force. There fore, culture is the social glue that helps and holds an organization together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say or do. People who own worked in divers(prenominal) organizations nurse that each organization is varied from the other organization. Things are not done the same way in everywhere in the organization. Even businesses within the same labor can be quite different from each other.The difference is w hat management scholars call organisational culture or corporate culture. thusly every organization has their own culture according to which they carry out their day-to-day activities and act and stick out accordingly to it. Do Organizations consume uniform culture? Schein (2009), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Kotter (1992) and many others state that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures. Dominant Culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organizations members.Subcultures mini cultures within an organization, typically defined by de plane sectionment designations and geographical separation. Core Values the primary or dominant values that are reliable throughout the organization. Strong Culture a culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared. Organizational culture is at that placefore different from topic culture or ethnic culture. The national culture in which the business is based can however hav e some influence on that businesss organizational culture. Smircich (1983) has analyzed different conceptions of organizational culture in relation to the anthropological schools.Organizational culture has been conceived either as a variable or as a root fable for conceptualizing organization. The studies can be divided into two areas organizations have been regarded as cultures (is onrush) or having a culture (has draw near). It happens all too often. A keep company introduces changes with high expectations of improving performance. When the changes fail to take root and produce think results, the unfulfilled hopes lead management to introduce other seemingly promising changes. These, too, ultimately fail.The sequence repeatsan never-ending cycle of high expectations followed by failure and, inevitably, frustration on the part of management and cynicism on the part of workers. There are several possible reasons for these failures. One key reason is that changes introduced f ail to alter the central psychology or feel of the organization to its members, it is this feel that directs and motivates employee efforts (Guzzo and Shea, 1992). Without changing this psychology, there can be no sustained change. The main pip is organizations have people in them if the people do not change, there is no organizational change.Changes in hierarchy, technology, communication networks, and so forth are effective only to the stagecoach that these structural changes are associated with changes in the psychology of employees. The primary mechanisms for both maintaining and changing an organizations culture includes 1. What managers pay attention to, measure and control? 2. The ways managers (particularly top management) react to critical incidents and organizational crises 3. managerial role modeling, teaching, and coaching 4. The criteria for allocating rewards and status and . The criteria for recruitment, selection, promotion, and removal from the organization. Man agers should expect to encounter voicelessy in clearly instinct situations that involve change. Analyzing a change problem can become quite complex because of the large name of variables that must be considered since theres no way to stop change from happening, there are several positive steps to reconstruct a change program no-hit, including opening channels of communication, ontogeny a learning environment, and providing training.Even with open communication, fearful planning, and extensive training, stark naked program or idea may still meet with resistance. According to Schein, culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change, outlasting organizational products, services, founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization. His organizational model illuminates culture from the standpoint of the observer, described by trey cognitive levels of organizational culture (Schein, 1992).Culture change may be necessary to reduce employ ee turn everywhere, influence employee behavior, make improvements to the company, refocus the company objectives and/or rescale the organization, provide better customer service, and/or achieve specific company goals and results. Culture change is oppositioned by a number of elements, including the external environment and indus fork up competitors, change in industry standards, technology changes, the size and nature of the workforce, and the organizations history and management. 3-Step pretending This is often cited as Lewins key contribution to organizational change.However, it needs to be recognized that when he create his 3-Step model Lewin was not thinking only of organizational issues. Nor did he intend it to be seen separately from the other three elements, which comprise his Planned approach to change (i. e. Field Theory, Group moral forces and Action Research). or else Lewin saw the four concepts as forming an integrated approach to analyzing, understanding and bringi ng about change at the group, organizational and societal levels. A successful change project, Lewin (1947a) argued, involved three steps . Step 1 Unfreezing.Lewin believed that the stability of human behavior was based on a quasi-stationary equilibrium supported by a complex field of driving and restraining forces. He argued that the equilibrium needs to be destabilized (unfrozen) before old behavior can be discarded (unlearnt) and new-made behavior successfully adopted. Given the type of issues that Lewin was addressing, as one would expect, he did not believe that change would be easy or that the same approach could be applied in all situations The unfreezing of the present level may involve quite different problems in different cases (Lewin, 1947a, p. 29). Enlarging on Lewins ideas, (Schein (1996, p. 27) comments that the key to unfreezing . .. was to recognize that change, whether at the individual or group level, was a profound psychological dynamic process. Schein (1996) ide ntifies three processes necessary to achieve unfreezing disconfirmation of the validity of the status quo, the demonstration of guilt or survival anxiety, and creating psychological safety. He argued that . .. unless sufficient psychological safety is created, the disconfirming study provide be denied or in other ways defended against, no survival anxiety forget be felt. nd consequently, no change will take place (Schein, 1996, p. 61). In other words, those touch on have to feel safe from loss and humiliation before they can accept the new info and reject old behaviors. . Step 2 Moving. As Schein (1996, p. 62) notes, unfreezing is not an end in itself it . .. creates motivation to learn but does not necessarily control or predict the direction. This echoes Lewins view that any onslaught to predict or identify a specific outcome from Planned change is very difficult because of the complexity of the forces concerned.Instead, one should seek to take into account all the forces a t work and identify and evaluate, on a trial and error basis, all the available options (Lewin, 1947a). However, as noted above, (Lewin (1947a) recognized that, without reinforcement, change could be short-lived. Step 3 Refreezing. This is the final step in the 3-Step model. Refreezing seeks to stabilize the group at a new quasi-stationary equilibrium in order to ensure that the new behaviors are relatively safe from regression.The main point about refreezing is that new behavior must be, to some detail, congruent with the rest of the behavior, personality and environment of the scholarly person or it will simply lead to a new round of disconfirmation (Schein, 1996). This is why Lewin saw successful change as a group activity, because unless group norms and routines are also transformed, changes to individual behavior will not be sustained. In organizational terms, refreezing often requires changes to organizational culture, norms, policies and practices (Cummings and Huse, 1989). It is more difficult to change the culture of an existing organization than to create a culture in a brand new organization. When an organizational culture is already established, people must unlearn the old values, assumptions, and behaviors before they can learn the new ones. The two most important elements for creating organizational cultural change are executive support and training. . administrator support Executives in the organization must support the cultural change, and in ways beyond communicative support. They must show behavioral support for the cultural change. Executives must lead the change by changing their own behaviors.It is extremely important for executives to consistently support the change. Training Culture change depends on behavior change. Members of the organization must clearly understand what is judge of them, and must know how to actually do the new behaviors, once they have been defined. Training can be very useful in both communication expectations and teaching new behaviors. Other components important in changing the culture of an organization are hold value and belief statements use employee focus groups, by department, to put the mission, vision, and values into words that state their tint on each employees job.For one job, the employee stated I live the value of quality patient care by listening attentively whenever a patient speaks. This exercise gives all employees a common understanding of the desired culture that actually reflects the actions they must commit to on their jobs. Practice effective communication charge all employees informed about the organizational culture change process ensures commitment and success. Telling employees what is expected of them is critical for effective organizational culture change.Review organizational structure changing the physical structure of the company to align it with the desired organizational culture may be necessary. As an example, in a runty company, four distinct busin ess units competing for product, customers, and internal support resources, may not support the creation of an effective organizational culture. These units are unlikely to align to support the overall success of the business. Redesign organization approach to rewards and recognition needs to change the reward system to encourage the behaviors vital to the desired organizational culture.Review all work systems such as employee promotions, pay practices, performance management, and employee selection to make sure they are reorient with the desired culture. Hofstede (1980) looked for global differences between over 100,000 of IBMs employees in 50 different countries and three regions of the world, in an endeavour to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior. He suggested about cultural differences existing in regions and nations, and the importance of international awareness and multiculturalism for the own cultural introspection.Cultural differences reflect dif ferences in thinking and social action, and even in mental programs, a term Hofstede uses for predictable behavior. Hofstede relates culture to ethnic and regional groups, but also organizations, profession, family, to society and subcultural groups, national political systems and legislation, etc. Hofstede suggests of the need of changing mental programs with changing behavior graduation which will lead to value change and he suggests that however certain groups like Jews, Gypsies and Basques have keep their identity through centuries without changing.Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified four dimensions of culture (later five in his study of national cultures Power distance (Mauk Mulder, 1977) distinguishable societies find different solutions on social inequality. Although invisible, inside organizations power inequality of the boss-subordinates relationships is functional and acc ording to Hofstede reflects the way inequality is addressed in the society. According to Mulders Power Distance Reduction theory subordinates will try to reduce the power distance between themselves and their bosses and bosses will try to maintain or enlarge it, but there is also a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. . Uncertainty avoidance is the coping with suspicion about the future.Society copes with it with technology, righteousness and religion (however different societies have different ways to addressing it), and according to Hofstede organizations deal with it with technology, law and rituals or in two ways rational and non-rational, where rituals being the non-rational. Hofstede listed as rituals the memos and reports, some parts of the hi story system, large part of the planning and control systems, and the nomination of experts. . Individualism vs. collectivism disharmony of interests on personal and collective goals (Parsons and Shils, 1951).Hofstede brings that societys expectations of Individualism/ Collectivism will be reflected by the employee inside the organization. Collectivist societies will have more emotional dependence of members on their organizations, when in equilibrium organization is expected to show righteousness on members. . Masculinity vs. femininity reflect whether certain society is predominantly male or female in terms of cultural values, gender roles and power relations. . Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation which Hofstede describes as The long-term orientation dimension can be interpreted as dealing with societys search for virtue.Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute truth. They are normative in their thinking. They ex hibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to and for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. In societies with a long-term orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results. Conclusion Employees form an overall subjective perception of the organization based on such factors as degree of risk tolerance, team emphasis, and support of people. This overall perception becomes, in effect, the organizations culture or personality. These favorable or unfavorable perceptions then affect employee performance and satisfaction, with the impact being greater for stronger cultures. Just as peoples personalities tend to be stable over time, so too do strong cultures. This makes strong cultures difficult for managers to change.One of the more important managerial implicat ions of organizational culture relates to selection decisions. Hiring individuals whose values dont align with those of the organization is not good. An employees performance depends to a considerable degree on knowing what he should or should not do. Changing the organizational culture requires time, commitment, planning and congruous execution but it can be done. References Henry Mintzberg Cultural and Environmental School of Thought culled www. mbaknol. com accessed Thursday11th April 2013. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of culture. New York Basic Books.Keeling, R. M. (1981). Theories of culture. In R. W. Casson (Ed. ), Language, culture and cognition (pp. 42- 66). New York Macmillan. CHAPTER FORTY-ONE Creating a Climate and Culture for Sustainable Organizational Change Benjamin Schneider Arthur P. Brief Richard A. Guzzo (1996) Accessed on Thursday 11th April, 2013 http//media. johnwiley. com. au/product_ancillary/64/04702605/DOWNLOAD/chapter41. pdf B. Schneider, Organiz ational Behavior, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 36, pp. 573611, 1985. R. A. Guzzo and G. P. Shea, Group Performance and Intergroup Relations in Organizations, in M.D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds. ), handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed. , Vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992). Smircich, L. (1983) Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis. Administrative Science quarterly 28(3). Pp. 339-358. . . Cummings, T. G. and Huse, E. F. (1989). Organization Development and Change, 4th edition. St Paul, MN West Publishing. Cummings, T. G. and Worley, C. G. (1997). Organization Development and Change, 6th edition. Cincinnati, OH South-Western College Publishing. . Deal T. E. and Kennedy, A. A. 1982, 2000) unified Cultures The Rites and Rituals of corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982 reissue Perseus Books, 2000 . . Hofstede, Geert (1980) Cultures Consequences International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills , CA, Sage Publications, reprinted 1984 . . Kotter, John and Heskett, James L. (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance, Free Press ISBN 0-02-918467-3 . . Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. In Lewin, G. W. (Ed. ), Resolving friendly Conflict. capital of the United Kingdom Harper & Row. . . Lewin, K. (1947a). Frontiers in group dynamics.In Cartwright, D. (Ed. ), Field Theory in Social Science. London Social Science Paperbacks. . Mulder, Mauk (1977) The daily power game, Martinus Nijhoff Social Sciences Division Parsons, Talcott, Shils, Edward (1951), Toward a General Theory of Action, reprinted as Parsons, Talcott, Shils, Tolman, Stouffer and Kluckhohn et al. , Toward a General Theory of Action Theoretical foundations of the Social Sciencies, Transaction Publishers, 2001 Ravasi, D. , Schultz, M. (2006), Responding to organizational identity threats exploring the role of organizational culture, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 433458. Schein, E. H. (1996). Kurt Lewins change theory in the field and in the classroom notes towards a model of management learning. Systems Practice, 9, 1, 2747. Shein, Edgar (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. p. 9. How to Change Your Culture Organizational CultureChange You Can Transform Your Culture With sensibleSteps By Susan M. Heathfield, About. com Guide http//humanresources. about. com/od/organizationalculture/a/culture_change. htm