Saturday, August 31, 2019

Hunger game Essay

In the novel the Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, the main character is Katniss Everdeen a female that represent district 12. Throughout her journey she has to fight against eleven other district and twenty-three other tributes in order to be the last tribute to survive. Although Katniss know that the Hunger Games is not an easy task to complete winning or staying alive is the only option, she still gain the power and confidences to compete. Throughout the Hunger Games all the power was given to the totalitarian government of the capitol. The government was able to control the people and the districts of Panem, because they hold most of the country of Panem wealth. In theHunger Games the citizens of Panem were consider to be servants in a brutal game of life and death. The games keep the people of the districts divided and fighting among themselves. â€Å"Taking the kids from our districts, forcing them to kill on another while we watch† (1.  18). The main purpose is to remind the districts how weak they are, and cannot do nothing about it, their deaths is for televised entertainment. As the journey continues Katniss started to develop more power and confidences in herself. The control the capitol has over each districts is to maintain order. But when it came to Katniss and Peeta the capitol had little control over them. â€Å"Eventually I understood this would only lead us to more trouble† (1. 6). At this point in time Katniss’s fear that the capitol is controlling her. â€Å"I don’t want them to change me in there. Turn me into some kind of monster that I’m not† (10. 141). Peeta wants to die as himself, not as one of the capitol’s servants. The Hunger Games involved different stages of dystopia. In which they used propaganda to control the citizens of Panem. The only option they have is to fight for their survival to win or to be killed. However Katniss defeats the capitol and frees the districts from its wrath.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Role of Women in Ancient Egypt

Thesis: Women in Ancient Egypt had numerous amounts of roles during Ancient History. What was the Role of a Woman in Ancient Egypt? I. Legal Rights of an Egyptian Woman A. Equal with men 1. Right to possess property and dispose of it 2. Often added threats and curses against people who tried to violate their rights B. Divorce 1. A letter describing how a man announced his intention to divorce his wife. 2. Women kept their own property C. Property 1. Sell, Buy Own. 2. Leave it to whomever she wanted. D.Legal Rights in Open Court 1. Right to bring lawsuits against anyone 2. Won legal cases without gender-bias II. Jobs A. Female Rulers 1. Ahhotep a. Wife of Segnenre-Taa and mother of Kamose and Ahmose b. Presented with the Order of Valor and venerated as the mother of the heroes 2. Ahmose-Nefertari a. Sister and wife of King Ahmose the First b. Presented with patron deities of the villages 3. Queen Tiye a. Wife of Amenhotep the Third and mother of Akhenaten b. Became Royal Wife favored by the King . Nefertiti a. Wife of Akhenaten b. Supported her husband and all his reforms, gave him 6 daughters 5. Nefertari a. Wife of Ramesses the Second b. Had the most beautiful tomb in the Valley of the Queens B. Enslavement 1. Hired themselves 2. Served for royalty C. Medicine III. Role of Women A. Child Care B. Senior Women in Charge if Household shopping C. Servants IV. Marriage A. Right to decide official Marriage B. Becoming Pregnant gained respect C. First duty was to be a good wife and mother

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Air lines industry Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Air lines industry - Research Paper Example Introduction Air travel in the US is a complex industry, whereas its flow aspect – the airlines – is liberalized economically. The airline industry is prone to many guidelines. Moreover, the reimbursement aspects, work regulations and capital of the airline industry still reflect approximately fifty years of political power and protection (Smith & Cox, 2008). The airline industry needs lasting decision-making since it is highly capital demanding. For instance, decisions such as hire, building airport infrastructure, developing route systems or buying aircraft have multi-decade inferences and require large capital investments. Consequently, accounting data in the airline industry is not likely to be the solitary forecaster of future growth opportunities. The 1978 deregulation of the industry eliminated the shields that protected airlines from ecological ambiguity and market rivalry, for example economic recessions and fuel price increases. Hence, following deregulation, it might be difficult to see the clear connection between the firm’s stock proceeds and managers' actions in the airline industry. Moreover, these factors advocate that non-financial approaches might have significant information concerning managerial actions, not enclosed in financial measures. This necessitates including them unreservedly or explicitly in compensation deals which decreases the risk borne by airline managers (Srinivasan, et al, 1998). The decade of the 1980s was a chaotic era for the commercial aviation division in the United States. The deregulation of the American commercial aviation sector in 1978 had totally modified the features of civil aviation in the nation. Prior to deregulation, the federal government had noteworthy influence over routes and fares. Conversely, following deregulation, liberated rivalry steered in a new period in passenger air travel. Airlines discarded smaller cities, assumed ‘hub’ cities, competed with new less signific ant airlines that had entered the market and possibly most essential, decreased passenger fares noticeably. The resultant effects of deregulation, however, proved to be more spectacular for the airlines (Siddiqi, 2009). Ultimate problems affect the industry despite considerable gains of economic liberalization. A number of these problems are transitional, the enormous modifications needed by the end of a half century of severe directive. The regulated airline cartels obtained returns on capital that were supposed to be sensible. Nevertheless, these returns factored in high costs that would frequently not exist in a competitive market. For instance, the airlines’ unionized personnel, founded and reinforced under regulation, gained liberal salaries and unproductive work policies compared with expectation in a competitive market (Smith & Cox, 2008). Major Financial problems The returns of the airlines have not been proportionate with the incomes. For instance, the twelve main U. S. airlines moved from a net profit of $72.5 million in 1955 modest as compared to their $ 1.5 billion of working incomes through a sequence of less gainful years, which comprised a general loss for 1961. At the end of 1962, with net profits of roughly $40 million on revenues of $3.0 billion, the carriers were considerably behind their 1958 and 1959 situations, which effected mainly from non-jet operations (Kerley, 1967). Dempsey (2008) indicates that

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The Negative Effects on Children Living In a Single Family Household Research Paper

The Negative Effects on Children Living In a Single Family Household - Research Paper Example One of the consequences that have been experienced by children living in a single parent family household is that children in such families fail to perform well in their educational sphere. This is because when one single parent is running the entire household, they are able to provide less amount of support to their children in shape of emotional as well as monetary support. The educational opportunities that are available to a child of single parent family are much lower than their counterparts. Douglas B. Bowney conducted a research on the educational performance of children living in single father or mother led family households and figured out that those children who were living in such households were not performing as good as the children living in two parent families (Downey, 1994). Due to lack of support in single parent family, children are not provided proper supervision and guidance. Their parents are mostly out at work in order to meet the financial needs and when they come back to their home, they tend to rest because of their hectic working schedules. Children in single parent families even fail to differentiate between right and wrong as the parents are not home to inform them about behaviors that are accepted by the society and behaviors that are considered as deviant. According to Stephen Demuth and Susan L. Brown’s research, children who are born and raised in a single parent household are at a higher risk of committing criminal activities as compared to those who live with two biological parents (Demuth, 2004). Another issue experienced by children living in households of single parent is that they experience ample amount of emotional issues. Children who experience child abuse and divorce are at a higher risk of developing behavioral as well as emotional issues. These children tend to exhibit aggressive behaviors and may even experience higher amount of stress and depression because they

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Texan Foods Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Texan Foods - Case Study Example Benefits derived from the collaborative sharing of information through the system are numerous. Businesses attain less stock-outs, more accurate and better forecasts, more powerful visibility of stocks, increased sales, a lower on-hand inventory, and a decrease in the costs of goods sold. The above mentioned benefits motivated the employees of Texan Foods and Valley Backers to aid a hand to ensure the success of the pivot study conducted. Despite the increase in the sales of some of the commodities offered by Texan Foods, there were various problems that needed to be addressed. The forecasts had been out-spaced by the inventory holdings of some category of stock such as backed goods. Moreover, the supply metrics for these commodities did not meet their mark. In addition to these, there was an unexpected rise in the stock-outs at the Distribution Centers from 5% to 7%. The percentage was steadily rising to 10%. Valley Backers, one of the suppliers was also expressing their concerns regarding the inconsistencies in the stock orders. The implementation of the system faced very many challenges. Preliminary agreements between the firm and Valley Backers were drafted. The type of product to be piloted and the level of collaboration required were agreed upon. However, both companies had different expectations on the methodology of carrying out the pilot study. We wanted to start at a slow rate, sharing only a small range of data on pricing and sales, while Valley Backers wanted complete access to all the databases including competitors’ products and pricing data. We did not agree on the number of products to be tested and the duration of the pilot study. Moreover, employees who had shown much enthusiasm for the system lost their morale as the time elapsed. However, some employees who were hesitant at the beginning became more willing to take up the task and assist in its

Monday, August 26, 2019

Islamic and diversity Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Islamic and diversity - Research Paper Example ployed several non-Muslims in functions such as diplomacy and public administration while subsequent dynasties such as Ottoman dynasty of 1281-1923 placed non-Muslims like Yakub Mahallesi as Prime Minister. Islamic history is characterised by numerous queens who ruled Islamic dynasties such as Queen Radhia of Egypt thus confirming that Islam appreciates diversity (Mapel & Nardin, 1999). Although some conservative Muslims may argue that men are the protectors and women should not be leaders as outlined in Quran (4 : 34), contemporary Muslim scholars have challenged this notion since the verse concentrates on Islamic family law and not general political leadership (Manger, 1999). In addition, the conservative Muslims may argue that Islam does not appreciate the leadership of non-Muslims, but Quran (5 : 15 ) makes it clear that Jews and Muslims are protectors and friends of each other and thus Islam requires them to foster relationships with unfriendly people in order to ensure peaceful coexistence (Ali, 2005). Prophet’s tradition and Holy Quran in the Quran 5 evidence Islamic appreciation of diversity: 18 that asserts that ‘if God had so willed, he would have made you a single people, so strive as in a race in all virtues’ (Nagel, 2002). The Quran therefore recognises individual heterogeneity and ‘a race in all virtues’ signifies God’s intention of using diversity to make human beings work better. Prophet’s traditions (Sunnah) such as Medina Charter promotes multiculturalism and diversity as outlined by the ethnic diversity of Medina population of 22 tribes and Jews and the need of equal rights and status in the society. The Quran also supports unity and brotherhood as evidenced by Quran (49: 13) that clearly points out that all human beings descended from same parents. Furthermore, Islamic appreciates the differences of language and race as evidenced in the signs of God as outlined in Quran (30: 22) that points out that God’s signs ar e creation of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Computer Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Computer Security - Essay Example One study was done by a group of academicians. The second study was done by computer security professionals. One is a seminal work carried out by Farzeneh Asghapour, Debin Lin and Jean Camp (2007) in assessing the indirect and implicit use of mental models applied to computer security. Asghapour et. al., (2007) did three experiments which revealed corresponding results. First, the experiments showed that for a set of security risks, the self-identified security experts and non-experts exhibit specific mental models. Second, a brand of expertise increases the distance between the mental models of non-experts and experts. Finally, the utilization of models through metaphors did not correspond to metaphors that are similar the mental models of simple users. The second study on computer security done by Stuart Schechter and Daniel Smith tackled the kind of security required to protect a packaged system which is present in large organizations from thieves who would plot a vulnerability to attack multiple installations. Both studies are similar since they relay the importance of computer security in organizations. The main theme of Asghapour and her co-researchers were to emphasize the importance of effective security risk communication. The researchers argue that this requires both communicating risk information and motivating the appropriate risk behaviors. The crucial argument is that the purpose of risk communication is not transmitting truth to the users, but training them to take an appropriate move to respond against a certain threat to their system. Similarly, Schechter and David present an economic threat modeling as a measure for understanding adversaries who are attracted for financial gain. They did a mathematical model on thieves outside the target organization who would enter through a simple vulnerability in one of the target company's packaged systems. This model can determine what these thieves are willing to pay for system vulnerabilities and how secure the system should be to withstand any form of theft. The main methodology of Asghapour and her co-researchers were to identify implicit mental models for computer security which makes these explicit and run a test for mental models for fit for risk communication. They also aim to utilize the mental models in a rational manner to address risk communication to non-expert computer users. The researchers pointed out that a mental model is an internal concept of a given process. This concept is case specific and may depend on life experience, description of the risk, type of risk, and information processing strategies. In contrast, the methodology of Stuart Schechter and David Smith in their computer security study was to project economic threat models. The economic threat models they designed were meant to answer these questions: a.) who profits from a computer security attack on a given company; and b.) what is the choice of attack The threat models enable them to pinpoint the adversary and the respective motivation of those. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Ashgapour and her co-researchers (2007) determined the scope of mental models which are used in the computer security profession. They chose five conceptual models implicit in language and explicit in metaphors: physical safety, medical infections, criminal behavior, warfare and economic failure. Physical safety refers to 'keys', 'safe

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Living with in-laws Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Living with in-laws - Essay Example Land is very reasonable right now and we had found several potential locations from looking online in the county where my mother lives. It’s a peaceful place where simple people can get away from the pressure of living in the fast paced, automated work world. There were plenty of places nearby that weren’t polluted; we could still go fishing, camping, and enjoy nature. What a sweet deal! There was no reason to stay in North Carolina as being near my wife’s family had always proved to be more of a stressor than helpful. Her family has some serious issues with backwoods ignorance and just plain meanness that made wanting to leave look like the next best thing to oxygen. They argue and bicker continuously; that is when they are still speaking to each other. Besides, we had never lived near my mother; I missed the closeness we had shared in my youth. She has always been a good mom to me; supporting every effort I made to grow and develop myself along the journey. Now that she’s facing her senior years, and is alone, I felt it would be wonderful to be close by in case she needs some support. About two months after I left for Missouri, my wife called one day, crying, and told me that her mother was ill. Apparently she had developed heart problems; I’m sure it had nothing to do with all the pork and lard biscuits she eats, and cigarettes she smokes. Make no mistake about it, mountain women are just plain work. I missed my wife; there was no way I wanted to stay in Missouri and let her stay in North Carolina for any extended length of time by herself, especially not at the mercy of her family. This was our dream and I just couldn’t get excited about it with her missing from the picture. As much as it killed me, I stopped everything and came back to North Carolina to support my wife in dealing with her family. My wife took her mother to the

Friday, August 23, 2019

Globalisation Is Just Americanisation By Any Other Name Essay

Globalisation Is Just Americanisation By Any Other Name - Essay Example It's true that capitalism is a global dispensation. The globalisation expedites its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. According to the economic statistician Angus Madison, from 1820 to 1997 National Income per head (the best indicator of the standard of living) rose nineteen times over in the advanced countries. In the less developed countries the increase was just 5.4 times over. With the introduction of globalisation, the gap between rich and poor nations grew ever wider. It's getting worse. According to the World Bank's 'World Development Report' average income in the richest twenty counties is 37 times as high as in the poorest and the gap has doubled in the past twenty years. At present 1.3 billion humans subsist on $1 per day or less. These people are in absolute poverty, and there are nearly 100 million more of them than ten years ago. The capitalism has developed the productive forces, at the same t ime has failed to eliminate poverty. The Globalisation is an undeniably US process. It has taken off as a concept in the wake of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and of socialism as a viable alternate form of economic organisation. The globalisation is the rapid increase in cross-border economic, social, technological exchange under conditions of capitalist.The capital globalisation means two things. First there is the globalisation of accumulated $25 trillion of 'derivatives' swilling around in the global economy. The movement of capital is to be analyzed in terms of trade. The movements of foreign exchange are now no longer the handmaiden of trade. Every dollar that crosses the exchanges for trade, sixty go for pure speculation. The speculative capital movements now overwhelm trade in their importance for the balance of payments. The financial globalisation has simply become isolated from the global surplus value production.Since 1980, multinationals company’s investm ent in foreign countries has been far more striking than the growth of trade, and might be the authentic engine of growth. The Direct Foreign Investment (DFI) grew by 30% a year while trade grew by less than 10%. With in 1990, the world's total stock of DFI was counted to be $1.7 trillion. The multinationals now control 80% of world trade. The extensive acceleration of DFI for the past decade has only been made possible by the technological revolutions in communications (IT) and transport (containerization). The globalisation is a threat to the working class struggle for better living standards in every country. The multinational corporations (MNCs) would have assets, sales, ownership of workforces and control

How precious metals relate to the economy Research Paper

How precious metals relate to the economy - Research Paper Example While gold remains the most popular investment vehicle for investors, silver, platinum, and palladium continue to hold strong interest. This research paper focuses on how these precious metals relate to the American economy and examines the price of the dollar in relation to these metals. This essay describes the history of the Western economy and banking structure, that was originally linked to gold through the gold standard. At a time in history all currency produced was held to a standard reserve of gold in the country’s central bank. However, recent decades have gradually witnessed a shift from this economic structure. Today precious metals operate in large degree like a currency, as they are subject to market inflations and deflations. There are many motivations for the purchase or investment in precious metals. In this context of understanding, this research paper reveales that precious metals largely function as a hedge for investors against fiat currency and volatile markets. In addition the nature of the historic relation between gold and currency is examined in terms of the gold standard. It’s noted that supporters argue going off the gold standards creates greater government volatility, while detractors argue that going off the gold standard creates the potential for a welfare state. Ultimately, it’s clear that both historically and in the contemporary environment precious metals and the economy are greatly intertwined.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Catherines developing relationship Essay Example for Free

Catherines developing relationship Essay On one level Marco just lifts a chair and issues a challenge, but on another level Marco is challenging Eddies  masculinity, and also revealing his deeper frustrations with Eddie. On yet another level, the chair could be considered symbolic of the deadly weapon used to kill Eddie and the tragedy to come.  The facial expressions of characters are equally important, especially at the end of act one, as non-verbal communication becomes very important. The glare of warning that transforms into a smile of triumph unsettles the audience and shifts Marco into a whole new position in both the eyes of the audience, and Eddie. The tension is high and the audience is left poised, and waiting for the next act. The element of impending tragedy has not gone unnoticed by the audience who are left in suspense. Eddies decision to phone the Immigration Bureau reveals a lot about him. The phone booth glowing draws the attention of the audience and plays on the idea of the tragic hero always making the wrong decisions and succumbing to his fatal flaw. It shows that Eddie has become desperate and isolated, and the audience can pick up on his state of mind from the symbolism Miller has incorporated into the play. This symbolism is brought to our attention chiefly by phone booth at the middle of Act 2, and the booth reveals several messages about Eddies inevitable fatal flaw. The blue colour that is said to emanate from the phone booth in the stage- directions could be used to represent Eddies state of isolation, sad confusion, and the distance, which Eddie has placed between himself and the community. The lonely stand of the phone booth could also symbolize Eddies loneliness. The story of Vinny Bolzano that Eddie tells at the very beginning emphasizes just how important the Italians feel that justice is. It also shows how far Eddie has fallen in terms of his moral ideas that we learn of in the beginning. When he first tells the story he tells it with disgust. However, he then ends up on the outside of the community like the boy in the story, highlighting how his unnatural acts lead to his own isolation and reveal how far he has dropped since he held his own standards.  The reference to Vinny Bolzano also creates turmoil in the minds of the audience as it raises several key questions about how the community will react when Eddies flaw is revealed to them, and whether or not he will be pushed out of the community and turned on by his family. Later on, when Alfieri says History repeats itself, this is another explicit reference to the story of Vinny Bolzano. There is a profound irony to this as Eddie repeats the same actions he has snubbed to Catherine.  Another key event in the play is the kiss that Eddie gives Catherine and then Rodolpho. This is possibly the most revealing event in terms of Eddies persona and motivation. It can be viewed on several levels; firstly that Eddie is so desperate, that he is clutching at anything, which might delay Catherine, and stop her leaving. He is so frightened that his chance with Catherine will vanish forever, that he tries to reveal to her how he feels before its too late, but due to his confused and desperate state of mind, this emerges as a totally improper action. He then tries to cover up his mistake through the hazy smoke of his drunken mind, by kissing Rodolpho. We as the audience could presume that Eddie is trying to give the message that he is just friendly, and kisses everyone. Eddie cannot however, quite pull this facade off, as this is not the sort of action in keeping with what we know of him and isnt really feasible. Secondly, it could be jealousy that motivates Eddie into doing outrageous and terrible things, perhaps because he was jealous of Rodolfo and Catherines developing relationship. This is also hinted at in the interview between Eddie and Alfieri, when Eddie says, but hes (Rodolpho) stealing from me. As I mentioned before, Eddie sees Catherine as his possession.  Thirdly, the kiss could be interpreted by the audience, as revealing Eddies own homosexual tendencies, and lead us to consider that Eddie only kissed Catherine to cover up his desire for Rodolpho. This however, is doubtful when we look at Eddies strong homophobia and fear of anyone defying convention. Finally, because Eddie thinks that Rodolfo is gay, he might have then kissed Rodolpho as an afterthought, in a half-hearted attempt to make Catherine realise that Rodolpho is gay.  In summary, we can say that the kiss reveals Eddies deep jealousy toward Rodolpho, because Eddie knows he cannot have Catherine. The kiss is a last desperate attempt to snatch Catherine from Rodolpho, but this futile attempt does not succeed, it just drives Catherine further away from him.  The ending of the play confirms Eddies position as a tragic hero in several ways. Characters like Lipari, his wife, Louis and Mike, are the stage representatives of the wider community, and one by one leave Eddie, symbolizing the tragic heros isolation. In the very end we see that as the traditional tragic hero, Eddie remains or at least seems to remain, oblivious of his harmatia even to his death. His cry of My B! could show some acknowledgement of his fault, and realization that he was wrong.  However, his penultimate words of, then why? leads the audience to conclude that Eddie must still remain deluded and that he hasnt realized his flaw at all. If at this point, and after all that has happened, Eddie still has to ask why he is suffering and carry on behaving as if he has been wronged, he is still clearly in denial about his own unnatural desires and bad judgements.  From his final comment the audience have no choice but to conclude that Eddie still refused to acknowledge that he is part of the problem to the very end and maintained that he was the victim.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Contraception And The Catholic Church Religion Essay

Contraception And The Catholic Church Religion Essay Religions place in civilization has always been a tenuous battle between the liberties society is willing to afford it, and the divine right they claim. More recently religion has come to fill the void between human desire and morality in the wake of inherent greed. The Roman Catholic Church is, perhaps, one of the most driven and commanding religious institutions; its claims have always been those of religious enlightenment, a beacon of hope morally guiding society in a world of darkness and sin. On an idyllic level, Catholicism functions as intended; for its millions of followers the Church provides a sense of stability and spiritual guidance. Yet regardless of intent or belief, religion and Catholicism are flawed; they are human concepts instituted and governed by man, inherently subject to human error and imperfection. Religion in general and particularly the Catholic Church have always claimed a monopoly on the definition of transgression and morality, fortifying its role in soc iety as a pillar of hope and faith for all people both good and evil. Yet history has demonstrated that these charges have been repeatedly abused and misinterpreted, catering to the powerful while often smothering subordinates cries of injustice. Perhaps one of the most staunch and unwavering views of the Catholic Church has been their stance on contraception; until the 1930s Catholicism stood side-by-side with Protestants in their dissenting view on the distribution and use of contraception. However with the advancement of modern medicine the use of contraception became an acceptable and essentially healthy practice for much of the world. While Protestants recognized the value of contraception and safe-sex, Catholicism still refuses to accept its necessary role in society. By the Catholic definition, transgression (otherwise known as sin) is defined as an offence against reason, truth, and right conscience; it is a failure in genuine love for God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods (Catholic Pages). Catholicism further splits sin into two categories: mortal sin and venial sin. Venial sin is a comparatively mild form of transgression when compared to mortal sin, as its consequence is not eternal damnation; it is essentially any sin that is committed without the full knowledge or intent of the parties involved and is not grave in nature (ONeil). For a transgressive act to be considered a mortal sin, it must fulfill three requirements: the matter must be grave, the sin must be committed with full knowledge, and the sin must be committed deliberately (Catholic Pages). Murder, theft, adultery, premarital sex, bearing false witness, and the use of contraception are all considered mortal sins in the eyes of the Catholic Church and ar e divinely punishable by eternal damnation (Catholic Pages). While there are several acts that unarguably belong in this category, it would seem that several are out of place, the most blatant being contraception. It is important to note that the Catholic definition of sin is neither more nor less legitimate than that of any other denomination; it is merely a byproduct of biblical interpretation and human policy. Many argue that one of Catholicisms greatest weapons has been its definition of sin, which has repeatedly been wielded to assert Church authority in matters ranging from warfare and foreign relations to simple public policy disagreements. Contraception, which by biblical reference is alternatively referred to as Onanism (referring to Onans sin of withdrawal in refusing to impregnate his dead brothers wife, a sin by Jewish faith) has been manipulated similarly to homosexuality (Brohm, Birth Control). The term Sodomy (like Onanism) was also coined by the Catholic Church, as i t referred to the men of Sodom and the homosexual acts they committed (Brohm, Birth Control). When an institution holds the power to define what is right, they hold a monopoly on justice and while it may be righteously wielded for a period, basic human nature makes its abuse inherent. Focusing specifically on the mortal sin of contraception, a practice that has come to be more than a means for inconsequential pleasure, especially in a world of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, the need for its proper distribution and use is more necessary than ever before (particularly in preventing the spread of infectious and potentially deadly diseases). The Church has always maintained a firm stance on contraception, lauding it as a violation of natural law (Brohm, Contraception and Sterilization). This opinion can be traced back to passages in Genesis: But Onan knew that the offspring would not be his; so whenever he lay with his brothers wife, he spilled his semen on the ground to keep from producing offspring for his brother.  What he did was wicked in the Lords sight; so he put him to death also (Genesis 38:9-10). However this biblical reference is disputable as Onans use of coitus interruptus (otherwise known as withdrawal) was aimed at preventing the p regnancy of his dead brothers wife, with whom he was charged to procreate according to Jewish tradition. It was not merely for the sake of avoiding pregnancy that Onan acted in such a way; he was simply trying to avoid creating children for whom he couldnt provide. This single passage forms the basis for the Catholic argument against contraception. The church also considers the practice of sterilization (just as that of contraception) sinful as the majority of biblical doctrine compiled against contraception does not specifically prohibit contraceptive measures, but rather condemns the practice of sterilization as a defilement of the human body. When examined in context, much of Catholicisms argument against contraception is substantiated by their doctrine and interpretation. Epiphanius of Salamis wrote, They [certain Egyptian heretics] exercise genital acts, yet prevent the conceiving of children. Not in order to produce offspring, but to satisfy lust, are they eager for corruption (Brohm, Contraception and Sterilization). Epiphanius basis for claiming the Egyptians actions sinful seems to be more a statement against Egyptian culture and peoples (a civilization that was largely under Moslem rule and therefore in direct opposition to Catholicism), than a direct attack on the crime of contraception. It is more a method for the Church to gain control and power over a civilization than a moral statement like the Church often parades it as. This same format of condemnation occurs in the writings of St. Augustine; You [Manicheans] make your auditors adulterers of their wives when they take care lest the women with whom they copul ate conceive. They take wives according to the laws of matrimony by tablets announcing that the marriage is contracted to procreate children; and then, fearing because of your law [against childbearing]à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. They copulate in a shameful union only to satisfy lust for their wives (Brohm, Contraception and Sterilization). Again, the substantiation of Augustines argument is based not on the inherent sinfulness of contraception, but rather the transgressive actions of the Manicheans whose own law prevents them from bearing children in certain situations. Both Augustine and Epiphanius highlight an inherent irony that occurs repeatedly in Catholic doctrine; the Church adopts a position on an issue, not in the spirit of moral guidance and leadership, but rather as a means of vilifying and defiling societys view of a certain race or civilization (most typically one that was proclaimed heretic or had an outstanding argument with the Catholic Church such as the Manicheans or the Egy ptians). By using their power to interpret religious doctrine, the Church was often able to form their policy in a manner that vindicated their cause, while slandering the moral standards of their enemies and dissenters. In recent times the Catholic petition against contraception has focused on the defilement of marriage. The Churchs stance on the unacceptability of premarital sex has always remained firm; hence it is assumed that contraception is used only within the confines of marital relations. As is tradition, the current Pope Benedict XVI renewed the Catholic Churchs stance against the use of contraception (specifically birth control) in a 2008 Vatican statement calling the policy an important document which addresses one of the essential aspects of the marital vocation and of the specific path of holiness that follows from it (Ertelt). Essentially the current pontiff claims that the use of contraception is an attack on the natural expression of love displayed through the act of procreation. While Pope Benedict XVIs stance on contraception is more rationally defined than previous church policy, it still demonstrates a disconnect with modern society. Obviously the Church will never promote or en dorse multiple sex partners and it is unlikely that their stance on premarital sex will change in the near future, however their dissenting position on birth control and contraception suggests a lack of modern day colloquial knowledge. The rationale for the use of contraception is far beyond any ancient concepts of marital relations or natural order, the issue is one of public health and world population. Perhaps the most compelling rationale for contraceptive education and use is the current HIV/AIDS pandemic that is sweeping Africa and invading other parts of the world. As of 2007 it was estimated that approximately 33 million men, women, and children were afflicted by either HIV or AIDS (AVERT). Since 1981 the HIV/AIDS and the subsequent illnesses it causes has killed 25 million people (AVERT). While not all of these numbers can be derived directly from the absence of proper contraceptive measures, a fair majority of those afflicted acquire the disease through unprotected sexual interaction. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 5% of the adult population is afflicted (roughly translating to 22 million people), some myths suggest the only cure for HIV/AIDS is unprotected intercourse with a virgin child, only further reinforcing the need for contraceptive awareness and education (AVERT). The Catholic Church has always regarded itself as a shelter for the poor, homeless, and otherwi se less fortunate; however their medieval stance on contraception suggests that they are ignoring the reality of modern times. Catholicism contradicts its own doctrine when it preaches a message of caring for the sick, only to turn and condemn contraception, a practice that could potentially stem disease and poverty on a global scale. Even ignoring disease, the proper education and use of contraception still holds the power to improve the standard of living worldwide. There are between 143 million and 210 million orphans worldwide; the Catholic Church has always pledged to be an institution that provides hope and shelter for those in need (including the millions of orphans), yet every year hundreds of thousands of unwanted pregnancies result in children being forced onto the streets or into the foster system (Skyward Journey). Mother Teresa, 1979 Nobel Peace Prize Winner and one of the most gracious and influential women in the twentieth century, fervently opposed the use of contraception. This is in many ways ironic, as Mother Teresas mission centered on caring for the impoverished children of the world. Her humanitarian efforts to promote adoption are legendary, yet in 1988 Oxford conference she stated that she would never allow a child entrusted to her care to be adopted by a woman who had an abortion or used c ontraceptives. Such a woman cannot love, she said. (BBC News). Mother Teresas stance on adoption and contraception are inherently contradictory; contraception reduces unwanted pregnancies, consequently reducing the number of orphaned children (Mother Teresas mission). Yet to say that contraception is not only a sin, but also a disqualifying characteristic for an adopting mother is (plainly put) ridiculous. There can be no solid proof that a woman who chooses to take birth control is incapable of loving; such a statement is fundamentally absurd. Mother Teresas opinion regarding contraception identically mirrors that of the Catholic Church as a whole (she was commonly called upon by Pope John Paul II to be an ambassador of Church doctrine), and demonstrates a clear disconnect with the problems facing the modern world. The Church also blatantly ignores the medicinal uses of birth control in their anti-contraceptive convictions. Sex without the consequence of pregnancy is not the only use for the pill; women who suffer from irregular and uncommonly painful menstruation periods turn to birth control as a form of relief and regulation. The hormones within the pill act to correct imbalances within some womens biological cycle (an aspect of birth control which Catholicism wholly ignores). This not only makes menstruation more regular and predictable, but it often shortens the total length and decreases the severity of side effects like nausea and cramps. Even the use of birth control for medicinal purposes is generally condemned by the Church, as their doctrine makes no exception or distinction between the medicinal and contraceptive use of the pill (similar to their adamant opposition to abortion, even when it is medically necessary to save an expecting mothers life). Ultimately Catholicisms opinion on contraception has remained static seemingly more for the sake of stubbornness and continuity than actual policy and necessity. With membership, attendance, and giving at an all time low within the Catholic Church (and most sects of Christianity), it would seem that these are a direct response to the stale doctrines and policies that Catholicism clings to in the midst of a dynamic and rapidly developing world. In an age where technology progresses at an exponential pace, humans seem to be searching for spiritual guidance that is as dynamic as the world they live in; not simply a regurgitated list of constant reverence and piety that stands unforgiving and unwavering in the face of new opinions and ideals. The Church preaches messages of forgiveness and compassion, is it not compassionate to prevent the conception of an unwanted child, in a world where children are regularly abandoned and orphaned. Catholicism needs to realize the gravity of their pol icies, millions worldwide look to the Churchs doctrine for guidance and in terms of contraception millions are misled. The same as condemning homosexuality, Catholicisms position on contraception touts those who violate their doctrine as sinners to be looked down, a class below those who are saved by their faith. Anyone familiar with the Bible knows that its teachings (and particularly the teachings of Jesus Christ) center on acceptance and love; nowhere in the Ten Commandments is it specified thou shall not use contraception but rather love thy neighbor and do not covet they neighbors property are dictated. The basic principles of compassion and the appreciation are taught, not constraint and restriction. The Catholic opinion and fixation with the sins of society ultimately detract from the purpose and message of religion in general; its purpose is not to dictate and control the lives of its followers, but rather to support and supplement believers faith, counseling them in times o f trouble and providing an explanation for those areas which man falls short.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

State Civil Society Relationship Social Work Essay

State Civil Society Relationship Social Work Essay The concept of civil society remains elusive, complex and contested. There are different meanings and interpretations and, over time, different schools of thought have influenced theoretical debates and empirical research. Civil society is conceived to be an arena of un-coerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. As a public sphere where citizens and voluntary organizations freely engage, it is distinct from the state, family and the market. From the above conceptions of civil society, they can therefore be considered as the wide array of non-governmental and non-profit organizations that have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, based on ethical, cultural, political, science, religious or philanthropic considerations (World Bank 2006, Kaldor 2003, Carothers 2000). The concept has its origin from the Greek philosophy though some scholars consent that its origin dates back in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Kaldor 2003, John et al., 1999) Civil society also has been centrally linked to the   contemporary status of   democracy and   change in the world.   It has been presented as the beacon of freedom, the fountain for the protection of civil rights and of resistance against state repression, the mobilizing platform of society for the protection and projection of substantive interests, the compelling force for state moderation and the epitome of popular struggles and civil power has been a central force in political and economic reforms. The activities and even proliferation of civil groups have been seen by several scholars as vital to the democratization process and its sustenance. Donor discourse on international development policy now places much emphasis on civil society than in the past. Therefore it would be worthy to note that in practical sense, the boundaries between state, civil society and even market can hardly be defined or drawn (Kane, 2001, Camarrof, 1999, John et al., 1999, Salamon and Anheier 1996). Hyden (1995)   further clarifies on the concept by   emphasizing that there are variables that determine civil society, these include: basis of social action, nature of state action, nature of political legacy and nature of inter-cultural relations. But above all these, from myriad studies conducted, it is clear that the middle class has on large extent paved the way for civil society especially in fostering democracy. 1.1 Objective The purpose of this research is to understand reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the theoretical concept of civil society and to go deep to understand the bilateral functions of civil society in Uganda. This study may be of great use to the policy makers, civil society actors, legislators and researchers who might be more enlightened about civil society in Uganda. In doing so the study will be contributing to the board of knowledge about civil society in Uganda. 1.2 Disposition This thesis will be organized as follows; the subsequent chapter (two) will present methodology used in this study. Chapter three will present conceptual framework. This will include definitions and the concept of civil society that I consider to be crucial for this study. Chapter four will be about civil society reality in Uganda. Chapter five will be about data presentation and analysis. 1.3 Problem Statement The past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of civil society organisations and they have made big strides towards improving the interplay between political and economic systems and thus have ensured democratic, participatory and decision making in society (World Bank 2006). NORAD (2003), UN-RISD (2005) present state, private sector and civil society as three separate arenas of development that operate independently from each other. Civil society has been well acknowledged as an important third sector whose strengths have positively influenced state and market and it is an important agent for promoting transparency, responsibility, accountability and openness. Civil society model recognizes   functions that are believed to be universally applied in all societies and according to Edwards 2004, World Bank 2003, SIDA 2005, the core functions of civil society include: to protect the citizens lives, property and freedoms; monitoring activities of state, central powers and state a pparatus; advocacy through articulation of interests of the citizens; socialization through practicing values and attitudes of democracy; intermediation and facilitation between state and citizens; building communities through voluntary interactions that build a bond between members of the society and service delivery in social service sector. Despite its increased importance and value, civil society in developing world has lingered behind and somewhat not understood. In Uganda, the basic descriptive information about civil society, its size, area of activity, sources of revenue and the policy framework in which it operates seem not to be available in an organized way. There seems to be domination of state and market while civil society structures are superficial and are shadows of the ideal model of civil society (Salamon, Sokolowski and Associates, 2003). Moreover, civil society tend to play a supportive role rather than confrontational or conscious raising roles. A report by NORAD (2002) indicates that the involvement of civil society in policy processes is cosmetic with limited impacts in Ugandan society. Therefore the actual situation about civil society in Uganda seems not to be according to ideal model of civil society in western societies. The point of departure in this study is to investigate and compare civil society reality in Uganda to the ideal concept of civil society in developed, modern and democratic societies while also trying to understand why the bilateral function of civil society in Uganda seem not to work properly. The purpose of the study therefore, is to investigate, understand and eliminate this discrepancy and comprehend the bilateral functioning of the civil society in Uganda with subsequent benefits derived from it. 1.4 StudyObjectives The general aim of the study is to investigate the reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the general concept of civil society. There are a number of specific objectives, these include: To identify major areas of operation by civil society in Uganda. To identify the major actors of civil society in Uganda. To identify functions of civil society To find out factors that influence State-CSOs relationship in area of advocacy. To determine whether the Western models of CSOs are applicable in Uganda. Research questions How applicable is the western model of civil society in Ugandas context? How is the relationship between state and CSOs in Uganda? In what areas of operation are CSOs active in Uganda? Who are the major actors of civil society in Uganda? What are the factors that influence the relationship between state and civil society in policy advocacy in Uganda? What are the functions of civil society in Uganda 1.5 Research Frontier The thesis aims at filling an apparent gap that exists since most studies have primarily focused on other areas of civil society like the relationship with political parties, civil society in conflict resolution and in poverty alleviation but little has been written on the civil society reality in Uganda with reference to the model concept of civil society. 1.6 Significance of the study The study will contribute to the board of knowledge. It will be used as a literature for the future studies related to civil society and state in Uganda. The study findings can also be used to harmonize the relationship between state and civil society so that they can work for the benefit of citizens in the country. 1.7 Structure This thesis will consist of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 will be about Introduction of the study. Chapter 2 will include conceptual framework while Chapter 3 will be about Literature review. Chapter 4 will consist of Methodology and chapter 5 will be on Data analysis and results. The last Chapter 6 will consist of Conclusions and Recommendations. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Methodology of the Study This chapter is about the methods that have been used in this study and explains the approaches that will be used in order to understand civil society reality in Uganda in relation to the model of the concept in the western democratic societies. 2.1 Methods This is a qualitative study primarily based on desk research of available documentations about civil society as well as few interviews from the civil society actors in Uganda. The method used for this study has some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include: it saves time that would otherwise have been spent on collecting data. It provided a broad data base more than what one can collect. Secondary data also provided the basis for comparisons of the information about civil society in Uganda with the model concept of civil society in the western societies. Lastly, the author did not worry about the informed consent and human subject restrictions and the method is relatively cheap. Much as the benefits of secondary sources are considerable, their disadvantages are also identified. There was likelihood of having outdated data. The author had no control over how the data was collected. There may be biases in the data that was already collected by researchers. In order to ensure reliability and validity of the study, many comparisons between the data were made. This involved checking other sources such as other references and information from highly regarded sites on the internet for instance from World Bank, donor agencies, universities among others. The information used was in line with what was collected from other sources. The information is also reliable in a way that it was collected from government documents and other sites mentioned above. The information was valid since the findings relate to the issues and aim of the study. 2.2 Type of study-Case study A case of Uganda will be used. Goerge and Bennet 2005:18 define case study â€Å"as well-defined aspect of a historical episode that an investigator selects for analysis, rather than a historical event itself†. Case study is one of the several methods used in conducting studies in the area of social science, psychology, political science and it has the following advantages: It will be used in this study because of its high possibility or ability to achieve high conceptual validity. In other words, the researcher is able to compare, measure and identify which indicators best correspond to the concept.   It has also been chosen because it helps to understand a variety of intervening variables and makes it possible to single out conditions in a case that trigger out causal mechanisms. However, case study method has a weakness of selection bias. In other words, there is a possibility of overstating or understating the relationship between independent and dependent variables (ibid) 2.3 Data collection The nature of the study requires drawing lessons from multiple sources. Therefore, in undertaking this, it is proposed that a wide range of data collection methods should be used, both primary and secondary sources of data. The methods will capture qualitative data. The method will provide flexibility in data collection through triangulation of different research methods. This approach will also assist in cross checking information. 2.4 Primary Sources of Data Different stakeholders will be targeted since they are able to provide valuable insights on various issues of the interest of the study. Among the specific methods that will be used to collect primary data will include: Semi-Structured Interviews Semi-structured interviews will be used with key informants in Uganda such as Civil Society actors. Interviews in this regards will be very helpful as they will deal with more detailed perceptions and experiences. The researcher intends to have deep and rich interaction with key informants in order to understand various issues pertaining to the various opportunities and challenges that Civil Society Organizations face. In all cases, confidentiality of sources of information will be ensured to allow for discussion of more sensitive issues. 2.5 Secondary Sources of Data Relevant literature pertaining to issues under investigation will be collected from the various sources including government documents about CSO and official reports from various sources, including published books, journals, and other relevant materials will be consulted. Internet resources shall also be used to access relevant information as well. Combining various methods of collecting data will enrich the whole study as each method of collecting data will capture a specific angle of the issue in consideration. Furthermore, different methods tend to have weaknesses when used in isolation, so combining various approaches will enhance chances of getting more reliable information upon which inferences will be drawn. 2.6 Sampling procedure A non probability sampling strategy will be used, that is, Purposive sampling. This type of sampling will be used because it is helpful in targeting and getting views from those people who are perceived to be well vested with issues of civil society and policy advocacy in particular. 2.7 Data Analysis Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews will be analyzed using qualitative techniques such as thematic analysis. This will be used because it is highly inductive and will help in understanding more about civil society in Uganda.   Another advantage is that the researcher does not impose themes but rather themes are generated from the data. 2.8 Secondary and content analysis Secondary analyses in this case regard to the studies that are taken from historical data as well as informational materials that exist beforehand but analyzed by other researchers which can be used as sources for new research or study under investigation (Goerge and Bennet, 2005). This will be used in this study on civil society in Uganda in relation to the model of concept of civil society in developed world. 2.9 Content analysis This is another approach if used properly enables research problems to be identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. Three basic requirements used in this method include. First, the author should be objective, in other words he/she should not follow their instincts or the way they see materials but should follow an objective approach of representing the materials. In this study this will be followed and done. Second, is the exclusion and inclusion of the content. This implies that the author in some cases has to include or exclude some contents much as it can be useful or useless for the study (Mikkelsen, 2005). This has also been applied in this study in order to ensure coherence. 2.10 Materials used Materials used in this study were obtained from already published books, articles and journals. Additional materials were obtained through the internet via various data bases that include: ELIN, LIBRIS, Google scholar. Official government websites were also used as well as other reputable sources like official website of the United Nations, World Bank, academic institutions and think tank organisations were also used. Other relevant information about civil society in Uganda was obtained from the news paper publications of The New Vision, The Daily Monitor and The Weekly Observer and bulletins from civil society organisations in Uganda. 2.10.1 Evaluation of the sources When dealing with sources which normally present different views from different authors, it is important to remain unbiased while using them as the source of information for the study but students normally find it very difficult to deal with. In order to evaluate the sources this study will base on the set of methodological rules of simultaneity, genuineness, independence and tendency. 2.11 Previous Studies on Civil Society Several studies have been conducted and many authors have written a lot about civil society. Kaldor Mary (2003) a school professor on Global civil society at London School of Economics in her article â€Å"Civil Society and Accountability† highlights the issue of trusting civil society groups in regard to giving the voice to the marginalized. She further sheds more light about moral accountability and procedural accountability referring civil society groups being accountable to the people they serve and accountability as internal management respectively. She finally elaborates on difference between Non-Governmental Organisations and civil society by indicating that the former is a subset of the latter. John Keane, a re-known scholar and a Professor of Politics at the Center for Study of Democracy, university of Westminister. He has published many books and articles on civil society, democracy and politics. He has collected myriad samples about what writers have produced on the subject of civil society especially writers in Europe. In one of his books â€Å"Civil Society and the State, New European perspective†. He clarifies on distinction between state and non-state realm of civil society. He further coins out why the distinction which was important in the first half of nineteen century but later lost trace (Keane, 1988). Hyden Gà ¶ran a professor of political science at the University of Florida. He has published a lot on governance, politics and civil society. In one of his books â€Å"Assisting the growth of civil society. How might it be improved?† he analyses various literatures on civil society and supports the idea that civil society is an important tool that has been directed at promoting democracy in societies which are under dictatorial regimes. He further points out that in many cases external support is meant to complement the efforts of transition from despotic rule, but rather, the strengths of civil society depend on the domestic social forces of a certain country (Hyden, 1995). A study conducted by World Bank, (2006) elaborates that increase in conflicts in 1990s contributed to a focus on civil society as key actors in peace building initiatives and hugely contributed to massive increase of civil society sector. The study also points out that the presence of civil society does not simply result to peace building, but rather, proper understanding and analysis of civil society functions, validity, scope and content are paramount to peace building initiatives. CHAPTER THREE Conceptual Framework of Civil Society 3.1 Defining Civil Society Different scholars define civil society differently. Some scholars define it broadly while others define it in specific or narrow terms. For instance Carothers (2000), Kaldor (2003) define it in specific terms as â€Å"a domain parallel to but separate from the state realm where citizens associate according to their own interests and wishes† (Carothers, 2000:1) and Kaldor, (2003) defines it as an associational sphere between state and family aggregated by organisations which are detached from the state and they are formed by society members voluntarily to guard and preserve their values and interests. From the above definitions, there is a common thread in which all authors depict civil society as autonomous from state and market. Further, there seems to be a consensus among the definitions on the term civil society signifying that it is an arena or sphere made up of different or a collection of groups amalgamated together with the a common shared purpose, values or interests. Is this amalgamation of different groups harmonious? It seemly unlikely to have a harmonious relationship between these groups because they have different interests, values and their social fabric is totally different. Therefore to belong to one sphere or dome and have same reasoning, tolerance among each other and advance one goal as civil society sector might remain a myth not a reality. However, some scholars define civil society broadly to mean that it goes beyond being an arena between state and family. For instance Centre for Civil Society goes further to mean that civil society does not only mean a sphere outside state and market but even its boundaries in between them can never be drawn and therefore very ambiguous and Shauder et al., (2003) portray it as an all-inclusive term often used to mean social structures and interests further than household and outside the state institutions, including voluntary associations and non-profit organizations where people mingle for their collective interests. It would be argued that by making civil society all-inclusive like what Shauder et al argues above, renders it more ambiguous because like it was earlier argued, merging different groups of different backgrounds clearly makes civil society mysterious concept. There is another category of scholars who define civil society in a broad way for instance Cohen and Arato (1992), Michael and Edwards (1996:1) look at civil society as not only a sphere of charitable links and informal networks in which groups and individuals come together to participate in activities of public importance but also is a realm of private voluntary association, from neighbourhood committees to interest groups and philanthropic enterprises of all sorts. According to the definitions above, civil society is consented as a set of voluntary and not-for-profits associations sharing same interests. This is not far from what has been defined by afore mentioned authors but the difference here is that Shauder et al broaden the definition to imply that civil society goes beyond household and state while Cohen and Arato include an aspect of â€Å"charitable links† and â€Å"informal networks† to the definition, to some scholars it is a mixture of formal and informal and perhaps that why its boundaries are unclear. These links and networks as commonly known are horizontal linkages/networks and vertical linkages, that is, a connection of groups in a same category and connection of groups in different categories respectively. These different points of view clearly depict the term civil society to be an imperceptible concept which many social scientist have come up to conclude that it has no universal definition and therefore difficu lt explain due to its vagueness. It becomes different from what Parnini (2006:4) defines it as the â€Å"totality of groups and individuals in a country who show a regular concern for the social and political affairs in that country without fulfilling the function of political parties†. Closely related, in his writing, Hyden, (1995:3) defines civil society as â€Å"the political realm, specifically the means and processes through which citizens shape the character of political life in their country†. All the definitions above portray civil society as a sphere made up of myriad individual groups and associations, but other scholars like Hyden bring in an aspect to show that civil society is a ‘political realm which becomes quite different from what other scholars or authors who believe that civil society is   rather public or social realm. This sparks further debates; hence the term has become a centre of both political and academic discourses all over the world. It becomes an elusive term because what Parnini explains above signify that civil society cares more about what government should do to suit the interests of citizens but does not play the role of political parties, yet to some scholars, political parties are part of civil society and if anything there are some civil society actors which play the same roles as political parties; a case in point is the role of mobilizing citizenry. This role is played by actors like church, community based organisations or even non -governmental organisations. The working definition for this study is thatcivil society is an amalgamation of both human and associational activities that operate in a non-restrictive, open to everyone sphere without involvement of the state and market. It is a dome where people express their interests and ambitions but with pull factors based on common goal, values and customs. 3.2 The Evolution of Civil Society concept The contemporary term ‘civil society has its origins in the early modern period in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, Kaldor (2003), points out that the term has its origin from Greek political philosophy. This is not far from what John and Comaroff (1999) noted that the term became prominent in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the period of modern European state formation, when it was used and explained by Ferguson, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Tocqueville. It is further argued that apart from being used by Gramsci, however, it did not thereafter dominate western political theory until recently (ibid). Kaldor (2003) further indicates that it has been narrowed in 20th century into forms of social contacts that are separate from both the state and market. There is a commonality in which different authors above perceive the genesis of civil society. This implies that the concept itself was in existence though dormant before seventeen and eighteen centuries but civil society activism became prominent at a point in Europe when most societies sought to have a modern state. Thus modern state formation phenomenon in Europe was envisaged to have a civil society which would play an important supportive role in fostering democracy as part of the means of transforming societies from authoritarian rule. What should be known at this point is that civil society was brought in as one of the ingredients for democracy just as Hyden (1995) clarifies that civil society was a vital step towards the direction or realization of modern and democratic society. The most recent usage the concept of civil society has been distinguished into three versions: the ‘activist version which emerged in 1970s and 1980s especially in Latin America and Eastern Europe which referred to the idea of a area outside political parties where individuals and groups aimed to democratize the state, to restructure power, rather than to capture authority in a traditional sense (Kaldor 2003). It is imperative to note that different versions were perceived differently by different scholars. In the first version (activist), the situation in Latin America and Eastern Europe compelled the need for civil society because there were military dictatorial regimes and totalitarian communist rule respectively. It seems the term was dubbed ‘activist because it was quiet hard for the common people to change governments in these regions, so what people did was to devise means of removing the government through formation of active groups independent of state which woul d change the relationship between state and societies (ibid) The ‘neo-liberal version which Salamon and Anheier (1996) argue, is connected with views of ‘third sector or ‘non-profit sector that was developed in the United States where there are groups or associations that were not controlled by the state or even the market, but were important with potential of facilitating the operation of both. It is argued that this version was taken up by Western donors in the early 1990s because CSOs were needed to mitigate against the shocks associated with Structural Adjustment Programmes, to provide social safety net and foster good governance. It should be remembered that when SAPs were introduced by Bretton Woods institutions, governments were forced to cut on spending on public services, in so doing, civil society was to come in and bridge that gap as well as help in fostering good governance. In comparison with the first or ‘activist version, it is observed that in the neo-liberal version came with the element of minimizing the role of state by checking the abuses and practices of the state just like what Kaldor had earlier alone argued, this version is linked with the ideas of social capital and trust of Robert Putman and Francis Fukuyama respectively. This differs from the first version of ‘activist in Latin America which mainly hinges on conscientization of the poor and breaking the culture of silence  Ã‚   the ideas of Gramsci and the inspiration of liberation theory. The overall difference between these two versions seems to be that neo-liberal version has an element of endorsing the western way of governance just as Salamon and Anheier had earlier indicated that it was developed in United States; while the activist version aims at emancipation and enhancement of human rights and justice but both have a commonality of being western-driven. The above versions are in contrast with the third version of civil society ‘the post modern which asserts that the ‘activist and ‘neo-liberal versions are a Western discourse. Post-modern version criticizes activist and neo-liberal versions because there is exclusion of civil society actors like religious groupings and organisations which are based on kinship, they are sidelined and considered as traditional, that is why John and Comarrof (1999) clarify on this by arguing that there should not be ‘good westernized civil society and bad traditional un-civil society. Therefore, here, we should ask ourselves, is there bad and good civil society? The answer is no and yes, but in order to be rational, the definition should include all the categories mentioned in the activist version (social movements), neo-liberal version (third sector) and post-modern version (traditional and religious groups). The western concept of civil society has largely strayed from its original meaning and role where NGOs are considered as the same as civil society. The terms ‘civil society, ‘NGOs and the ‘non-profit sector have been regarded as the same by western donors since the early 1990s (Parnini, 2006:4). However, it can be argued that a full understanding of civil society has more than what NGOs does because civil society is a public sphere where non-state actors are mingled together. It has to include social movements that promote emancipation of poor and excluded, it has to include social organisations that protect and promote the interests of members, and it has to include nationalist and religious groups that foster empowerment of national and religious groups respectively. Therefore, it is rather a combination of all these actors that a coherent and robust collection can act together in order to bring transformation in society. Nevertheless, Kane (2001) observes, civil society can be fostered through taking part in participatory activities ‘through grassroots organisations, through se

Monday, August 19, 2019

Fire Ecology of Australian Eucalypts :: Geology Nature Essays

Fire Ecology of Australian Eucalypts Eucalypts belong to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), which are evergreen ‘tropical’ rainforest trees (Bowman 2000). Three genera are considered eucalypts: Eucalyptus, Angophora, and Corymbia. Roughly 600+ species of eucalypts exist today, and nearly all are endemic to Australia ( Although eucalypts began as members of the rainforest, the pressures of poor soil, increasing aridity and most importantly recurrent fires pushed them out of the rainforests and on to become the dominant species in a harsh land. Today, fire promoting traits such as volatile leaf oils, copious litter production, and highly flammable bark allow eucalypts to out-compete rainforest species for prime sites. Geologic and Vegetative History of Australia Before 250 mya, all continents were connected into a super-continent now called Pangaea. About 250 mya, Pangaea split into two continents—Laurasia (North America, Asia, and Europe) became the northern continent and Gondwana (South America, Africa, India, Antarctica, and Australia) the southern continent. At around 145 mya, the angiosperms arose in the center of Gondwana and spread outward. The continent of Gondwana began fragmenting around 120 mya, with the break-off of India; Australia began its northward trek about 45 mya. At the time of its departure, a Gondwanic rainforest dominated by araucarias (early gymnosperms) and Nothofagus (southern beeches) covered Australia; the forests also contained members of the Myrtaceae family, from which the eucalypts arose about 34 mya. Soil cores from this period show very high counts in Nothofagus pollen, and very low levels of charcoal (Kershaw et al. 2002). While the presence of fire was felt in the ancient rainforest, its affects were relatively minor and infrequently felt. This forest covered most of Australia until the mid-Oligocene, roughly 28 mya. The rainforest may have endured if the climate of Australia had not undergone dramatic climate changes during this time. As the continent moved towards the northeast at a rate of 6-7 cm yr-1, it grew increasingly more arid. A quiet geologic history resulted in a lack of tall mountain ranges, and the continent could not capture the moisture of incoming oceanic winds. Dry climate began to take its toll upon the Gondwana rainforest; soil cores from the mid-Oligocene to the mid-Miocene show a gradual decrease in Nothofagus pollen, and a gradual increase in Myrtaceae pollen counts. This is most likely explained as a move towards a warmer or more seasonal rainforest, due to the lack of grass species in Australia and low charcoal levels (Kershaw et al.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing Writing Careers of Edgar Allan Poe and Stephen King Essay

Comparing Writing Careers of Edgar Allan Poe and Stephen King In human nature there exists a morbid desire to explore the darker realms of life. As sensitive beings we make every effort to deny our curiosity in the things that frighten us, and will calmly reassure our children that there aren't any creatures under their beds each night, but deep down we secretly thrive on that cool rush of fear. Despite our efforts to maintain a balance of respectable emotions, we are a society of people who slow down to look at traffic accidents and find excitement in the macabre. We turn off the lights when watching scary movies, and when it?s time to go to bed, we secretly make sure the closet doors are shut. Fear keeps our hearts pumping and endorphins rushing, for it is an emotion that reminds us of our mortality. How ironic it is to experience more life in our fascination with death. Two legendary writers have ruled the universe of death and horror with remarkable success, both gifted with the talent of introducing each reader to his or her own subconscious fears. Edgar Allan Poe and Stephen King are the masters of their craft, blessed- or perhaps cursed- with imaginations that set higher standards in the field of writing. Both authors broke new ground in fiction that has had a significant impact on the world of literature. Similar in quite a few ways, though contrasting in many others, this paper will explore the lives and styles of these two remarkable men, paying close attention to the differences that exist in their approaches to writing. A look into Poe?s childhood might shed some light on where this divergence stems from. Edgar Allan Poe was born in 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts to drifting actor parents. Denying his parental responsibilities, his father abandoned his wife and three children, leaving her to support the family as best she could. She traveled through various cities acting in stage engagements as she could get them, but the struggle eventually took a toll on her health. Towards the end of 1811 while in Richmond, Virginia, she became ill and died. Her children were promptly farmed into homes, Edgar being placed into the residence of a well-off, yet unsupportive merchant named John Allan. Allan was emotionally detached from Poe, refusing to even legally adopt the boy. This move would begin a chain of events, eventually triggering a drinki... ..., and even if Poe?s use of language may be difficult to understand in this day and age, his subject matter is just as timely as Kings is. They have followed the norms in style of their respective cultures and times, even though their themes don?t exactly adhere to society?s morality. They are different and stand out because of it. We may never know if any of this affected either writer?s ideas or successes, or if they simply were destined to write the way they have. What we do know is that as readers we will never be the same. The things that have secretly scared us since childhood are forever entrenched in the stories by these two great writers, and the subject of fear will never grow cold. WORKS CITED Charters, Ann. The Story and Its Writer. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin?s, 1999. Edgar Allan Poe- The Life of a Poet. National Park Service. 4 Apr. 2001. King, Stephen. Needful Things. New York: Viking Penguin, 1991. ---. Night Shift. New York: Doubleday Dell, 1976. ---. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. New York: Scribner, 2000. Van Doren Stern, Philip. The Portable Poe. New York: Penguin Books, 1957. Trotter, Jeffrey. Epinions. 5 Aug. 2000.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Which level of government should take the lead?

In ascertaining which between the federal government and the state and local government can best address the problems facing this nation, it is important that the pressing problems of the United States of America be identified first. Evidently, the most pressing problems of our nation today include job creation and economic growth, the war in Iraq, health care and social security, energy and the cost of gas, terrorism, illegal immigration and environment and global warming.When it comes to addressing the problem of job creation and economic growth, the lead should not be taken by any of the two levels of government since both the federal as well as the state governments must share the burden of dealing with the same. At the state or local level, intrastate commerce must be readily addressed. While interstate commerce must be facilitated by the federal government.The federal government however must be permitted to take the lead in addressing the problems of the war in Iraq, terrorism, illegal immigration energy and the cost of gas and the environment and global warming as these problems substantially involves foreign policy works that only the federal government is empowered to do. These problems require immediate attention and may oftentimes necessitate instant action which may only be delivered by the national government.On the other hand, the problems of health care and social security must be addressed by the state and local governments for the identification as well as the cure to these problems can best be addressed locally. It is within the realm of the power of the state and local governments to make measures to attend to the problems of health care and social security. Discuss the Davis Administration and how it affected the writing of the 1876 Texas Constitution.Governor Samuel Jackson Davis’ administration was perhaps the most controversial and unpopular one in Texas history. This may be because even his assumption to office was in the first in stance questionable. The backbone of his administration was the Texas Constitution of 1869 which provided for the centralization of power into the Governor’s Office and the expansion of governmental power. Davis’ term lengthened from the original two years to four years and his salary was significantly increased.Davis was able to have control over local state officials because of the vast appointing and removal powers granted to him by the constitution. The Davis administration was also criticized for levying unreasonably high taxes and incurring lavish government expenditures. Aside from his control over the State Police, the Constitution also empowered Davis to take charge of the State Militia which he both used to maintain law and order and compel local officials whenever they refused or failed to obey.His unpopularity was bolstered by immense corruption coupled with his declaration of martial law in some counties. Texans have always preferred decentralization, chea per government spending and abhorred the coercive force of the state police and the state militia and the declaration of martial rule. That is why in December of 1873, Texans replaced Governor Davis with a Democrat in the person of Richard Coke and subsequently rewrote their constitution.Texans promulgated the Constitution of 1876 which, up to this time, remains to be the fundamental organic law of Texas. It provided for shorter terms and lower salaries of elected officials, obliteration of voter registration, local control of schools, low taxation and less government expenditure. Although the governor was given the power to appoint, fill vacancies, and enforce the laws of the land, he was not given control over local or other elected state officials. The 1876 Texas Constitution vastly differed from its predecessor constitution. References: Longley, Robert. â€Å"Federalism: National Vs. State Government.†Ã‚   (2008). April 28, 2008 . Webmaster. â€Å"The Handbook of Texas Online.†Ã‚   (2008). April 28, 2008 .

Narrative on `The Dream of the Rood`

As the first known â€Å"dream poem† in English literature, â€Å"The Dream of the Rood† has stood as one of the most celebrated and profound works in verse around the world. Along with a penetrating, mystical vision of Christian spirituality and illuminating Biblical allusion, the poem offers a diverse and inspired form and diction to match its powerful theme and images. â€Å"The Dream of the Rood is best understood as an imaginative re-enactment of a private penitential experience[†¦] This critically acclaimed, dramatic Old English poem is the first dream-vision in English, and its most enduring features are a startling use of language, powerful prosopopoeia, and striking imagery.† (Butcher) Along with religious imagery which overtly signals the spiritual and penitential themes of the poem, â€Å"The Dream of the rood† extends truly original diction and meter to propel its impact. The basic â€Å"story† of the poem may have been drawn from earlier sources, poems which utilized the same theme: â€Å"an older poem describing the crucifixion of Jesus which may possibly have been written by Caedmon or one of his school, and which Cynewulf took up and worked at in his own fashion, adding to it where and how he pleased, and changing its mode of presentation — making it, for instance into a dream, and adding the personification of the Tree. (Brooke 438) Using the theme of   Christ’s crucifixion allowed the poet to soar into inventiuve language and word-choice, to establish poetry which addressed the spiritual and religious impulses of the Anglo Saxon world: â€Å"More explicitly in what is perhaps the most famous of the Anglo-Saxon Christian poems, The Dream of the Rood, the poet represents the Crucifixion as a physically active and heroic act.† (Crafton 214) This basic story is both straightforward and mystical: â€Å"the speaker tells of his swefna cyst, best of dreams, in which he sees the cross of the crucifixion, alter nately bejeweled and bloody, in the sky. The cross then speaks, giving its own first person account of the Passion of Christ, and encouraging the dreamer to spread the message of the cross to his contemporaries.† (Dockray-Miller)  Ã‚   In order to capture the luminous and exalted feeling of inspiration and religious intoxication which permeate the poem, the poet engaged in the use of language which is both striking and deeply connotative. In generating the â€Å"narrative† of the poem, the poet resorted to the use of gender-charged or gender-specific language, to â€Å"personify† and attribute qualitites to  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   the elements of the poem which would enable its message to emerge powerfully.†Particularly concerned with how language could be used to signal a status of power, the poet of â€Å"The Dream of the Rood† used masculine- and feminine-coded language to signal a change in the status of power-figures.†Ã‚   (Hawkins) Evidence of controlled and inspired diction is obvious from the poem’s opening lines: â€Å"the poet announces he will recount the â€Å"swefna cyst,† or ’best of dreams,’ the first-time reader thinks nothing of the phrase except that it signifies excellence in dreaming, perhaps; however, on second and third passes through the poem, the reader becomes aware that this diction deserves close scrutiny[†¦] the poet is establishing that both his narrator’s dream and the tree in that dream are the â€Å"best†; that is to say, they are ultimate truth.†Ã‚   (Butcher). Likewise, the tree, described first in the poem’s fourth line as â€Å"â€Å"syllicre tr?eow’, an absolute use of the comparative â€Å"syllicre,† meaning â€Å"a tree more marvelous [than any other tree].† Syllic is a variation of the adjective seldlic, from which our seldom comes. Thus, â€Å"syllicre tr?eow† can also be translated â€Å"rarest tree.† Immediately, the poet has established the exceptional nature of his subject.† (Butcher). Works Cited Brooke, Stopford A. The History of Early English Literature: Being the History of English Poetry from Its Beginnings to the Accession of King Aelfred. New York: Macmillan, 1892. Crafton, John Michael. â€Å"11 Epic and Heroic Poetry.† A Companion to Old and Middle English Literature. Ed. Laura Cooner Lambdin and Robert Thomas Lambdin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. 210-229. Dockray-Miller, Mary. â€Å"The Feminized Cross of ‘The Dream of the Rood.'.† Philological Quarterly 76.1 (1997): 1+. Hawkins, Emma B. â€Å"Gender, Language and Power in â€Å"The Dream of the Rood†.† Women and Language 18.2 (1995): 33+. Butcher, Carmen Acevedo. The Dream of the Rood and Its Unique, Penitential Language 1+ 2-5-07.            

Friday, August 16, 2019

Human and Nature

This paper is about nature where I have used different metaphor to define different natural thing and a poem at the end. A metaphor is like a simile because it is a comparison that is made between things. However, the explicit use of the word ‘like' or ‘as' which you see in a simile, is not used in a metaphor which is rather a comparison of two unlike things using the verb â€Å"to be†. Hence, a metaphor sounds more forceful and suggestive, but is still very common in speech.Nature is the beautiful world around us apart from human made phenomena. Nature is beyond the human imagination, every creature has it’s own behavior and responsibility towards nature. We humans think ourselves most superior creature but we are the one not being responsible towards the nature. Nature has such power that we forget our sorrow when we are in it’s lap. â€Å"Nature is wisdom†, it has such a large creation that no human can ever think of it.I think Real wisdom l ies or exists within the greenery of Nature. Nature consist of galaxies, solar systems, planets, vegetation, including plants, grass and trees, Fowls, including birds, chickens and peafowl’s, Animals, including man the masterpiece of Creation nature's brainchild and other mammals, both on land and in the sea, Insects, reptiles, fish, bees and a host of other named and unnamed, known and unknown, species. The beauty of Nature is for all to see.The music of Nature an amazing thing where birds chirp and sing, soft sky has no end it’s like endless tunnel to nowhere, flowers are nature's makeup, thunder is the anger of clouds, volcano is the earth getting angry, mist is floating tear drops, rising sun is the wakeup call where as sunset is bedtime for all, stars are peek holes to heaven, moon is the flash light of god, snow is the cloud's dandruff , trees are apartment buildings for bugs, wind is nature’s breath. I think nature is really great. Nature is smile on our face.Nature has such a power that brings smile in our face. Even in this age of high technology, where many people who live in cities and work full time with computers are still aware of weather and the seasons. We all know that the short, rainy winter days is less pleasant than a warm sunny June day. Most of us cheered at the return of spring, and we mostly have certain pleasant or striking memories we associate with each season. But nature has lots of things beyond seasons which can really pleasant our life and make lots of beautiful memories.Nature is mother she feeds us like a child. We all know that basic things that keep us alive come from nature. But we are so selfish that we think of ourselves rather than thinking of nature. We just take from nature and never think of returning. Humans are greedy beast . We are busy fulfilling our desire rather than remembering our responsibility. We think that we are in the industrialized world and there is nothing that human being cannot a chieve nowadays we have been to the moon, and have invented the Internet.Mesmerized by these fascinating achievements, there is one thing that people should not forget: what we depend on. How long would we be able to live without nature and without technological advancement? We had been living without technology for thousand of year but without nature we have not spend a single moment. Even if we destroy us, plus most of other life form, there will still be nature. The soil, ocean, atmosphere and weather would still interact with solar power to allow some life to exist. Earth cannot be a barren place like the moon with any life.Nature is life. Thus we have to be aware of nature and raise our voice to save nature. Nature Nature is our mother she feeds us like a child. All creatures are our siblings so let’s keep them alive. Flower and plants are her makeup that keeps her like a bride Do plantation to keep the bride pride. Wind is her breath that keeps us alive Say no to pollu tion to have a healthy life.Rivers are blood in her vein Never put harmful chemical that makes her pain. Today everything seem to be modern and computerized But actual thing is that nature is our life Nature is our mother; Nature is our life, Save the nature, and save your life. Reference:- http://www. saidwhatguides. co. uk/metaphors. php http://www. pandorascollective. com/naturemetaphors. html Number of words: 751 Paragraphs: 5

Thursday, August 15, 2019

New Weapons that Changed the Way of the Samurai

New weapons that changed the way of the samurai A Samurai Sword symbolizes and means the Samurai's prestige and his skills in battle. It is a measure of his stature in society. To all samurai it’s their prize possession and it is worn proudly by its master – until the teppo was introduced. The samurai considered it as dishonorable to tradition. This changed the way samurai fight and changed their view to samurai swords. The teppo is an example of a weapon that changed the way of samurai – it was introduced in the 16 century in Japan through Portuguese trade.They were easy to use and deadly. The teppo were produced on a large scale by Japanese gunsmiths since introduced. By the end of the 16th century, there were more firearms any European nation. [pic] (†¦picture of the traditional weapons used by the samurai before guns were introduced†¦) The Battle of Nagashino is a great example of a turning point between swords and guns. Oda Nobunaga made deadly use of the teppo at the Battle of Nagashino in 1575, leading to the end of the famous Takeda clan. Guns can wipe out a whole clan in just one battle. It was considered very deadly.In the movie ‘The Last Samurai’ it strongly relates to the concept of guns taking over traditional samurai swords and guns destroying loyal samurai clans. The film's plot is loosely based on the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion led by Saigo Takamori, and also on the story of Jules Brunet, a French army captain who fought alongside Enomoto Takeaki in the Boshin War. It also gives an enhanced and better understanding of how these weapons can be deadly to the traditions of the samurai and the changes that are happening when these weapons are introduced. Introducing these weapons to the samurai was a mistake that the Portuguese made.The samurai would have been better without the guns and weapons that were introduced by foreigners. Samurai teachings can still be found today in modern day society with the martia l art Kendo, meaning the way of the sword. Samurai Raid a Japanese  Village The lonely village on the Far East side of Japan encountered a group of vicious samurai last week that attacked the tiny village. Many possessions have been stolen from these poor villagers. These villagers were brutally beaten with a bamboo sticks in order to entertain these vicious fighters. They were left with bruises, body aches and pains.The villagers are furious and wish for revenge on these fighters. [pic] (†¦A picture drawn by one of the local villagers on what they saw and suffered in the raid†¦ ) The Chief of the village has announced a public meeting with the local villagers to discuss the actions that need to be taken in order to receive revenge on the people that brought terror and pain in the incident that has occurred last week. We interviewed one of the local villagers – he said he lost all his gold plates that were passed down from past generations and were meant to be pas t down to future generations – he cannot fulfil his ancestors wishes.He is very disappointed and angry for his loss. The villagers suffered a great loss. They have little left, not even enough to feed a family for more than one week. The villagers were suffering with food loss before the raid but now they have to suffer even more. Fake samurai swords are being sold to the public.. Beware Yesterday morning when merchants come and sell their goods a man in his late 20’s spotted samurai swords for sale. He asked the merchant the price of the swords. The merchant told the man he would sell the sword to the man for only ? 1,000.The man thought he was very lucky and immediately bought the sword. He took the sword home happily. [pic] (†¦the image of the sword the man bought for ? 1,000†¦) When he got home he realised the sword was a fake because it didn’t have the sharpness a true sword would have. He was very angry and decided to go and confront the merchant . When he arrived at the same place he got the sword, the merchant was nowhere to be seen. The man was very disappointed that he wasted ? 1,000 on a fake sword. He notified the local guards – they are still searching for the merchant.The Merchant was wearing a blur robe, has a long black beard and a scar on his right cheek. If you think you have found the merchant please notify the local guard. Samurai to hold meeting for the production of fake samurai swords†¦ As you know about the article about a man buying a samurai sword the other day and found it was a fake. It has been announced by the chief samurai that there would be a meeting with all the daimyo’s and discuss the action that need to be taken to catch the merchant that was selling this illegal swords to poor villagers. We interviewed the man and he said ‘†¦I am so happy that the samurai are following this merchant that has taken my money in return of a piece of metal that is useless to me†¦ ‘ So please if you have any information on this suspicious merchant, please notify your local guard. Nitobe was not the first person to document Japanese chivalry in this way According to the Japanese dictionary Shogakukan Kokugo Daijiten, â€Å"Bushido is defined as a unique philosophy (ronri) that spread through the warrior class from the Muromachi (chusei) period. † In Bushido: The Soul of Japan (1899), author Nitobe Inazo wrote: â€Å"†¦Bushido, then, is the code of moral principles which the samurai were required or instructed to observe†¦ More frequently it is a code unuttered and unwritten†¦ It was an organic growth of decades and centuries of military career. † According to the editors of Monumenta Nipponica, â€Å"Tens of thousands of documents survive from the medieval period†¦ Only a few have been translated into English, or are likely ever to appear in translation. † One of the oldest English-language academic journals in t he field of Asian studies, much of Dr.Steenstrup's significant findings were written for Monumenta Nipponica. In his text Feudal and Modern Japan (1896) Historian Arthur May Knapp wrote: â€Å"The samurai of thirty years ago had behind him a thousand years of training in the law of honor, obedience, duty, and self-sacrifice†¦.. It was not needed to create or establish them. As a child he had but to be instructed, as indeed he was from his earliest years, in the etiquette of self-immolation. The fine instinct of honor demanding it was in the very blood†¦ † Translation of documents related to bushido began in the 1970s with Dr.Carl Steenstrup, who performed a lifetime of research into the ethical codes of famous Samurai clans including Hojo Soun and Imagawa Ryoshun. Steenstrup's 1977 dissertation at Harvard University was entitled â€Å"Hojo Shigetoki (1198–1261) and his Role in the History of Political and Ethical Ideas in Japan†. The stylings of bushid o have existed in the Japanese literature from the earliest recorded literary history of Japan predating the introduction of Confucian ethic from China. The Kojiki is Japan's oldest extant book.Written in AD 712, it contains passages about Yamato Takeru, the son of the Emperor Keiko. It provides an early indication of the values and literary self-image of the Bushido ideal, including references to the use and admiration of the sword by Japanese warriors. Yamato Takeru may be considered the rough ideal of the Japanese warrior to come. He is sincere and loyal, slicing up his father's enemies â€Å"like melons†, full willing to combat the enemy single-handed, unbending and yet not unfeeling, as can be seen in his laments for lost wives and homeland.Most importantly, his portrayal in the Kojiki embodies an early example of the appeal of the warrior-poet. Published by Sephora Hidalgo and Maranie Ing BUSHIDO From the Bushido literature of the 13th to 16th Centuries, there exists an abundance of literary references to the ideals of Bushido. In his 1979 Dissertation, Dr Carl Steenstrup noted that 13th and 14th century writings (gunki) â€Å"portrayed the bushi in their natural element, war, eulogizing such virtues as reckless bravery, fierce family pride, and selfless, at times senseless devotion of master and man. Compiled in 1371, the Heike Monogatari chronicles the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century—a conflict known as the Gempei War. Clearly depicted throughout the Heike Monogatari is the ideal of the cultivated warrior. The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach. Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.By the time of Imagawa Ryoshun's Regulations at the b eginning of the 15th century, the bushido ideal was fairly clear, and the term itself came into widespread use. As illustrated by these various writings and house codes, bushido already encompasses loyalty to one's master, filial piety, and reverence to the Emperor. Bushido includes compassion for those of lower station, and for the preservation of one's name. Early bushido literature further enforces the requirement to conduct oneself with calmness, fairness, justice, and propriety.The relationship between learning and the way of the warrior is clearly articulated, one being a natural partner to the other. Finding a proper death in battle, for the cause of one's lord, also features strongly at this point in history. [pic]Japanese samurai in Armour,1860s. Photograph by Felice Beato ———————– Kendo lessons from ages 6 to 16 First 3 lessons free go to www. kendolessons. com phone master Shitzo and Yoda for more info: 100 200 300 I t starts at 6:00pm to 8:00pm with Master Shitzo private and non private with Master Yoda at the morning 8am to noon free food as well. [pic]Uniforms are provided when enrolled into course New weapon factory sale [pic] 28/29 Convict ST Liverfarm. Close to Toshiba’s land Call Rambo at 1234566787 for more information on the weapons available or about the factory Quick before it’s too late†¦. Join and experience war Join the army and get new swords and armour. Join now at the Red Cross tent in the middle of the field at Toshiba land. [pic] Contact Chief Yuki Monish at sunrise and sunset: 174635 26337 or at www. joinsamuraiarmy. com