Wednesday, October 30, 2019

How can the planning system encourage more sustainable patterns of new Essay

How can the planning system encourage more sustainable patterns of new housing development urban design - Essay Example Planning of homes has major impact on functioning level within societies. The planning and design of homes should consider various factors such as access to jobs, community facilities and access to transport. Well organized and planned housing development assist in the creation of unity hence contribute towards reduction in anti-social behavior. Development of cities, towns and leisure centers should consider various development policies such as environmental policies. Various destinations all over the world should consider creation of barrier-free movement within cities which would accommodate people of all walks of life (Scott 2000). Urban planning is defined as the art involved in designing places for the purpose of settling people. Such designs should consider accommodating more sustainable patterns of new housing development. New housing design method presents one of the most important elements of urban planning. The planning process entails various aspects such as aesthetic value of building masses based on the intended functions. In addition enough passage areas are constructed to enhance easy movement of both people and vehicle traffic. This would improve communication links within towns. Urban planning and design incorporates visionary frameworks which projects quality outlook of the development formats capable of accommodating vast developmental activities and at the same time maintains socio-cultural activities (Susan and John 2004). Development of modern quality housing requires the use of upgraded technology capable of producing modern designs and at the same time maintaining a sustainable environment. Infrastructural development does not entirely define an urban metropolis; it is also defined by the expectations and ambitions of its habitants and characterized by its upsides and downsides. The Cities background, practices and communal set up, form the core of city’s existence. There is need to effectively administer

Monday, October 28, 2019

Demonstrate A Range Of Communication Essay Example for Free

Demonstrate A Range Of Communication Essay When meeting an individual patient’s communication needs, a range of methods must be used. On the ward I work on, patient A has a long history of putting this in her ears, because of this she has an impairment of her hearing. This impairment can affect her emotional wellbeing, she often becomes frustrated when be spoken to due to not being able to hear people clearly. To communicate with Patient A more effectively, I would take into consideration my positioning, making sure I am standing face on to her. From my experience I have found this alone works however I have considered using pictorial aids, referral to the GP for a hearing aid and written communication.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

I Corinthians 15:12-14 :: Religion Christianity Bible Essays

I Corinthians 15:12-14 But if it is preached that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith (NIV). The resurrection of the dead is a mysterious concept that even some Christians have a hard time believing. Paul makes a strong statement regarding the importance of the resurrection and how it is tied to the faith of Christian believers. Paul's first letter to the Corinthians was a response to a number of problems in the church of Corinth. One of the main problems the Corinthians were having was speculation on the resurrection [of the dead] which was preached to them by Paul. The passage in which Paul talks about the resurrection is toward the end of his letter, before he discusses his plans and finishes with exhortations and greetings. The first half of the letter, after he gives his greeting and thanksgiving, is in response to reports that he has received regarding the Corinthians. The second half is in response to questions and concerns that they had. In the New International Version (NIV) of Paul's first letter to the Corinthians, his preaching and their faith are described as "useless" if Christ has not been raised (15:14). However, in the New King James Version (NKJV), Paul's preaching and the faith of the Corinthians are described as empty. These descriptions are very similar and both have a strong impact on the reader. If preaching and faith are empty, then they are also useless. The preaching of Paul to the Corinthians is certainly not useless and their faith, although problematic, is not empty. According to The Women's Bible Commentary, the Corinthians were convinced that already they fully enjoyed the spiritual benefits of the resurrection (321). They believed the resurrection of Christ was beneficial so they did not even consider that the dead were raised from the dead. Paul preached that Christ has been raised from the dead and the Corinthians believed what he said. It is because of this belief that Paul can bring his point across regarding the resurrection of the dead. If the Corinthians did not believe that Christ has been raised, Paul would be unable to convince them of the resurrection of the dead.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Push and pull strategy of Motorola Essay

Push Examples of companies are a) For example, Motorola use a push strategy to make arrangements with large mobile phone providers, such as Sprint, Verizon and AT&T, who can advertise phones directly to consumers. Businesses can promote products to wholesalers and vendors through trade shows, contacting local retailers and providing attractive packaging and point of sale displays to convince consumers to buy. b) Second is Nokia, Nokia promote their products via retailers such as Carphone Warehouse. Personal selling and trade promotions are often the most effective promotional tools for companies like Nokia. For example, Nokia offering subsidies on the handsets to encourage retailers to sell higher volumes. Pros: 1. To develop this kind of positioning, all one has to do is look at the competition’s literature and come up with positioning that seems sufficiently different from the alternatives. Potentially saves time because it can be done without speaking to customers. Maybe a good first step in developing a go-to-market strategy. 2. Using a push strategy usually costs less money and draws more business, because companies negotiate with large vendors. For example, a producer selling a product to Walmart can receive most of its business from a single retail outlet, allowing the business to focus on its product manufacturing and supply chain while worrying less about its relationship with customers. Cons: 1. The competition may have it all wrong and have no idea about what customers really want, so trying to work around the competition’s messaging may be pointless, since they all have it wrong anyways-and company probably do too since the company haven’t spoken to any customers 2. Push strategies can rely too heavily upon large vendors, which limit a business’ pricing and flexibility when selling a product. For example, a large producer like Walmart may dictate the price at which the business can sell its products. Pull Examples of companies are a) A good example of a pull is the heavy advertising and promotion of children’s’ toys, Toyrus. Consumers will go to ToyRUs and ask for a toy that was advertised on the television, and then ToyRus will ask the wholesalers who will then ask the producers about the product and meet the demand. b) Second example is car manufacturing company, Ford Australia. Ford Australia only produces cars when they have been ordered by the customers. Applied to that portion of the supply chain where demand uncertainty is high production and distribution are demand driven no inventory, response to specific orders point of sale data comes in handy when shared with supply chain partners decrease in lead time difficult to implement Pros: 1. Removing Pressure. One of the primary attractions for pull marketing is to mitigate the pressure of conducting outbound marketing. Marketers do not need to actively persuade customers that they need the product; customers are naturally drawn to it. 2. A pull strategy can create large demand for products in a short time, especially if a new business has difficulty building up market share for its products. Businesses can easily solicit customer feedback on how to improve products. Also, dealing directly with customers enables businesses to cut out retailing middlemen. Cons: 1. Requires extensive customer interactions to identify the things that customers feel are the differentiated features of the product. It is difficult to done to get customer interaction. 2. Advertising expenses can be costly with a pull strategy, unless a business gets lucky with a viral marketing campaign. Building a brand can take years and cost millions before customers become loyal to a product line.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Medical Equipment Inc

Medical Equipment INC Q1) No, Grover thought that he has a good understanding for the culture because he was raised in Saudi Arabia, but the reality is he grew in an expatriate compound with limited contact with the Saudi people or the Saudi culture. He went to an Indian school and then went to take his college degree in the USA. His internships gave him the opportunity to work in France and the United States. The internships prepared him to work in the field but Saudi business concept is foreign to him.Grover did not understand the Saudi culture and missed some critical points while he was trying to get the deal. He knew that relationships are important in making business in Saudi Arabia which is completely true. The problem was he tried to build relations with the wrong persons the foreign cardiologist, the Egyptian biomedical engineer and the purchasing manager, but he could not reach the purchasing director. In a hierarchy community as Saudi Arabia the purchasing director is the most important one to build a relation with he is the one who can give Grover the deal.Grover spent his time building relation with people who can’t help him with the deal. It was obvious for me that Al Humaidi was avoiding meeting with Grover and when he finally met him after approximately one month it was a formal conversion. I lived in Saudi Arabia for 9 years and from my experience Saudi’s only have a say in Saudi Arabia. Foreigners or non Saudi Arabs working there have no say when it comes to business deals.A Saudi will always prefer to work with an Arab like Najjar and not an Indian because of the language and religious similarities this may sound harsh but is true especially in a situation like this where Al Humaidi had established a long relation with Najjar. Q2) Bribe is never justified and it is unethical, unless you are working in a pharmaceutical company or in a medical equipment company. I am a pharmacist who worked in Egypt and lived in Saudi Arabia and f rom my experience that all the deals in this field need bribes.Bribes are not ethical at all but are a common practice in field of pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies. In Grover’s case it’s within company rules to offer a trip to a business customer to one of the showrooms to view and get more details regarding medical equipments latest software and technology. This can be considered a bride but it’s not as obvious as cash. Cash bribery’s is not allowed, and would be a mistake. The hospital that Al Humaidi works for is a government owned one with a large budget to work with so if Grover offered money this wouldn’t be viewed as an incentive to buy the medical equipment.In Egypt companies give the mangers of the client gifts depending on the field that the company works in and how popular and attractive the actual product being offered is. I remember a famous company that produces the devices that measures blood sugar level, in a way to pr omote its devices the company offered the product free to the physicians and the pharmacies with the strips needed so the physician can use it himself on patients or give it as a gift or use it in his clinic and the pharmacy of course will use it to measure the blood sugar level for the customer.The company will get double benefit, the physician and the pharmacy will advertise the product to the patient by using this device and the patient will be advised to buy one. Q3) Grover has limited options that may be acceptable. There are 4 options I see as possible the first one is to continue in his way of conducting business. Grover’s current plan of action is morally and ethically safe, will not break any rules of the company or of his conscious but he may lose the deal.The second option is to proceed with the trip offer which will give him a chance to win the deal and in the same time he can document it as a business expense so it will not look as a bribe. As a show of commitmen t Grover should accompany Al Humaidi to the trip to help build a long lasting relationship. By going on the trip with Al Humaidi he can try to secure the current sale and also build for the future by assuring Al Humaidi that Medical Equipment INC. will be ready to work with him and be there for support and logistical backup and no also provide the best, outstanding technology for a reasonable price.The third option is to create a plan B and try to secure a sale regardless of the size, just to try and get in good favor with Al Humaidi with a potential of future business. It seems that even with careful analysis and generating a sales plan that offered all the best equipment according to the hospitals needs; this was still not adequate to secure the sale. From what Grover knows now he can create a plan B and modify the list of equipment that is offered and tailor it to the needs of the engineering and cardiology department only.The ECG machine that is being offered is far superior to that of the equivalent product that Wilson’s is offering. Knowing this and already having established a positive relationship with Dr. Saxman, Grover can push the two products that appeal more to the hospital. If the desired sale of $725,000USD worth of equipment is out of reach, then Grover could go forward with plan B and put an emphasis on the two ranges of products that Medical Equipment INC. has the edge over.While implementing this plan Grover already knows he is in good place with the cardiology department and engineering department so he could meet again with the purchasing manager Sultan and persuade him to schedule a meeting between the cardiology, engineering department, Sultan and Al Humaidi to discuss the new plan. This way not only would Grover have the support of the department but he would have a Saudi in Sultan to help push this new idea. Al Humaidi will be still able to take the two devices from Grover and take the other devices the hospital needs from Najja r.In the case it was mentioned that the low or high estimation of the order is wrong and will result in losing the deal but in Grover case he make the right evaluation of the need of the hospital but he will provide just 2 devices of these needs and this is acceptable, during my work in a governmental institution that need medical devices I saw a lot of deals involve buying the needs of the institution from 2 and 3 different companies depend on the price and the quality of the devices each company offers. So it is not weird or strange to just provide part of the needs even when you can provide it all it depends on the situation of the deal.The One option that would cause him to lose the deal is to offer cash to Al Humaidi. For one Grover would not be able record the cash gift and it would be highly against company ethic code. If an unethical cash type bride was offered, Grover would not be able to predict the reaction of Al Humaidi and the deal could be lost and Grover could risk hi s job or worse be deported from the country. Q4) I think the best option is to go with the trip option. In my field of work in pharmacy I saw these trips happen a lot and it is a common practice in the pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies.It’s an acceptable way to close the deals and gives the seller a higher percentage of closing the deal. So I think this trip will give him a great opportunity to win this deal especially if he went with the director in it and build a good relation with him and at the same time Grover won’t risk his position in the company because it is not considered a bribe or unethical for the medical equipment’s company. If the trip did not secure the deal he can always use plan B which will be easier to use after the trip because of the good relation he built with Al Humaidi.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Essay on Monopoly Economics and Demand Curve

Essay on Monopoly Economics and Demand Curve Essay on Monopoly: Economics and Demand Curve Question 3 : In what ways could a monopoly be (a) more efficient (b) less efficient than several firms competing against each other? Discuss this statement with the use of appropriate diagrams. Monopoly Characteristics of a monopoly Single seller No close substitutes for the product High barriers to entry – potential competitors can be prevented entering the industry through: economies of scale ownership of scarce resources legal barriers Effect of these characteristics Because the monopoly firm is the only supplier of the product, the monopoly is called a price maker and can influence the price by varying the amount of output it supplies to the market The demand curve is the downward sloping market demand curve compare with perfectly competitive firm’s demand curve Marginal revenue and elasticity Marginal revenue for a monopoly is related to the elasticity of demand for its good A profit maximising monopolist will never produce at an output in the inelastic range of its demand curve Why not? It could charge a higher price, produce less and earn a larger profit. Recall: Total Revenue = price x quantity Inelastic demand:  ­ price to  ­ TR The monopolist’s decision How much to produce and at what price? As with a perfectly competitive firm, a monopolist will employ the profit maximising rule: Choose the output level at which MR = MC Set the price based on demand for that level of output Profit maximisation under monopoly Barriers to entry allow the monopolist to protect its market from competition. Economic profits can be earned in the short-run AND long-run. Monopoly vs. perfect competition Perfect

Monday, October 21, 2019

Islam and Fundamentalism essays

Islam and Fundamentalism essays The impact of Islamic Fundamentalism on the World as it relates to terrorism. Muhammad was born into the trading society of Mecca in 570. He was a part of one of the dominant tribes, the Qu'raish.1. Mecca was a great trade city and was a stopping place for merchants and businessmen of all races, religions, and countries. In general, it was open to the world. Although Mecca continually struggled for supreme power and went through many leaders, Mecca's strength was the ability of the people to form a common mind for the "common good" . Not much is known about this man during the first forty years of his life other than the fact that he married a rich widow and later they had a daughter, Fatima, who became the wife of the great warrior, Ali. However, around 610, Muhammad claimed that after meditating in the desert God had revealed many messages to him concerning life. These revelations came from the angel Gabriel, who Muhammad claimed God had used to call him to publish his religion . Muhammad's revelations were written shortly after his death and they are now called the Qur'an. After these experiences in the desert, Muhammad claimed to be a prophet of God with the great desire to guide others by God's message. So, he began to preach to those around him in. The people of Mecca at this time were involved in a religion called Ka'aba meaning "black stone," in which they literally worshipped a black stone. Those following this religion believed that many objects, other than the black stone, possessed spirits and power. Therefore, Muhammad's message asserting the lordship of Allah was not well received at first. The people called him a sorcerer and false prophet and claimed that he was possessed2 and in 622 Muhammad was forced to flee Mecca. He had been condemned by Meccan authorities who held to Ka'aba3 (Guillaume, p.124). This escape is now called the year of the Hegira ("Flight") and marks the first year on the Muslim calendar1 (A...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Turn Campus Leftovers Into Meals in College

Turn Campus Leftovers Into Meals in College Maybe you’ve heard of that University of Maryland student who noticed that his campus kitchen ends up with a lot of leftovers and decided to donate them to hungry families. The effort grew into a bigger project and he now runs a nonprofit called Food Recovery Network. Leftovers have a long history from charity to high cuisine. Did you know that a lot of famous national dishes emerged as a way to do something with leftovers? Pizza is said to have come about as a result of putting leftover ingredients on top of a baked bread base. Gazpacho, the cold Spanish soup is made from leftover stale bread and tomatoes. Bouillabaisse, the French fish soup was made of the leftover fish that the fisherman couldn’t sell at the market. Soups, stews, sandwiches, salads, omelets, casseroles and other yummy dishes can all be easily made from leftovers. Below, youll find some steps for you to make meals out of campus leftovers: First, you’ll need to get permission from your campus kitchen. Obviously, you can’t just walk in and start filling up some tupperwares with food. Approach the director of the campus kitchen and maybe a member of student affairs to coordinate how and when you’ll have access to campus leftovers. If there are no kitchen facilities in your dorm, you’ll need to get access to the campus kitchen facilities. Be patient, respectful and persistent. There’s really no good reason why good food should go to waste. There are basically three categories of leftovers: Leftover starches Leftover vegetables Leftover meat In the case of there being a lot of leftover starches such as bread, pasta, rice or potatoes, all you need to do is add some vegetables and/or meat to make a great meal. Likewise with the leftover vegetables and meat, you’ll just need to bulk up your leftovers by adding some starches. Find some examples below. Bread French onion soup a cheap and delicious meal. Some leftover bread, some onions and cheese is all you need to make this dish. Bread pudding beat some eggs, add some milk and cinnamon and bake for a fast, easy dessert. Sloppy Joes add some ground beef in tomato sauce for a simple Sloppy Joe. Pasta Add a can of tomato sauce and a tin of tuna for a quick and yummy tuna pasta dish. Or fry up some garlic for a quick aglio e olio. Add a can of peas and some cream and chop up some ham for a creamy option. Or bake your pasta with some cheese for a simple mac and cheese option. Rice Rice balls just combine the leftover rice with a little cheese, roll in breadcrumbs and deep fry them or bake them. Serve with hot sauce, ketchup, marinara sauce or your condiment of choice. Rice pudding make sure the rice doesn’t have salt in it first. Then just add milk or coconut milk, an egg, sugar, honey or another sweetener and cinnamon. Raisins are a popular addition, but totally optional. Stir fried rice this is the ultimate leftover dish. Throw some veggies (carrots, bell peppers, cabbage, spinach, onion, garlic and whatever else you have) and douse it with soy sauce. Add the rice and stir. Vegetables Vegetable soup a tablet of chicken or vegetable stock and some time are all you need to make this dish. Add rice, noodles or meat. Veggie omelet take those leftover veggies and tuck them into an omelet. Easy. You can also make Pasta Primavera by just adding pasta and some parmesan cheese. Chicken Chicken fried rice just bulk this one up with some rice and you’re golden. Chicken soup add some veggies, noodles or rice and some chicken stock. Chicken Caesar salad chop up the chicken and add it to your salad. The original Caesar salad is with Caesar dressing and romaine lettuce. Meat Shepherd’s Pie another legendary leftover’s dish, whip up some mash potatoes and layer the meat with some peas, carrots and onions under the mashed potatoes. Top with cheese and bake. Pasta Bolognese add some pasta, cream and tomato sauce to the leftover meat and enjoy this traditional Italian dish. Fish Fish chowder add some milk and some corn and carrots or potatoes and you’ve got yourself a lovely fish chowder. Shrimp salad top your salad with some shrimp salad, add dressing and enjoy! Or eat it on a sandwich. There are infinite ways to enjoy leftovers. What are your favorite leftover recipes?

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Strengths and Weaknesses of Mainstream Supply Chains Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses of Mainstream Supply Chains - Essay Example As the report declares supply chain management is an essential component of the management tools of organizations dealing in the flow of goods and services. Value creation is important for organizations because the main objective for existence of companies is to make profits. It means that companies must design a competitive infrastructure through which all its supplies and products/services will flow. The ease of flow of which products/services from the manufacturers to the final consumer is tantamount to the efficiency, and largely the profitability, of such manufacturers. According to the research findings conversely, the manufacturers or service providers must design an efficient infrastructure through which raw materials flow from the supplies. Besides the suppliers and the final consumers of products and services, supply chains involve many other entities, who either create value or facilitate the movement of products and services across the supply chain. Accordingly, organizations employ supply chain management as a means of ensuring smooth flow of raw materials from the suppliers and efficiency in delivery of products/services to the end customers. The logistics of supply chain management increase tremendously when it comes to international businesses. The global context of the supply chain involves many middle parties from across the globe. As a result, Global Production Networks (GPN) becomes inevitable, particularly for multinationals with subsidiaries in far-flung countries where the supplies do not have a base.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Why might we consider justice to be an essentially contested concept Essay - 1

Why might we consider justice to be an essentially contested concept - Essay Example It is the hope of this brief analysis that the reader will come to a more full and complete understanding of the way in which societal recognition of justice has come to be defined as well as some of the core drawbacks to the way in which this term impacts different individuals and points of view in different ways. Firstly, one of the core interpretations that were presented by Plato, and individuals before and after him, was that moral virtue is ultimately the definitive aspect of justice. Naturally, within such a definition, two distinct words stand in contrast with one another (Plant, 2011). First of these is â€Å"moral† and the second one is â€Å"virtue†. Unfortunately, these two are not mutually exclusive and necessarily involve compliments of one another as a function of their own definition; lending the reader to realize that a situation of philosophical analysis is somewhat adulterated by this reality (Rawls, 2011). Further identifications and definitions were predicated upon the fundamental or tacit/innate concept of justice and the belief that it was given by God/god/gods. Although this interpretation was useful in helping individuals to understand the natural rights and concepts of justice that helped to define a given political system, these also fell short due to t he fact that they leveraged an understanding â€Å"justice† that was predicated upon a particular belief system or religion. Naturally, this was also fundamentally flawed as it promoted one particular set of ideals and interpretations over a litany of others (Ryan, 2009). A further issue that exists is the fact that even if it is understood in terms of a universal application of fairness and equality under the law, it will invariably place a particular worldview, ethnicity, or culture as a barometer for the way in which this concept should be defined and administered. Looking into the current exhibition of the justice system in most of the developed

Analysis of Country Road's financial performance Assignment

Analysis of Country Road's financial performance - Assignment Example The company net profitability declined in 2012 as compared to the 2009; whereas the gross profitability increased by a mere 0.7% in 2012 as compared to 2009. This signifies the growing inefficiencies and disabilities in the company to control costs and expenses. Step Three The profitability provided a better measure as compared to the profits. This is because the profitability analyses the profits with terms to the growing sales; and therefore, helps in measuring the efficiency of the company in controlling costs and expenses with the increasing sales. (Keiso 1999) Step Four a. Appended figure 3 shows the extended trend analysis on the expenses for the period 2009-2012. b. Depreciation and Amortization expenses have increased the most over the period. The expense has increased by 57% in 2012 as compared to the expense in 2009. The second most increased expense is the occupancy expense which increased by 38.4% over the same period. Step Five a. Appended figure 4 shows the vertical ana lysis performed on the identified items of the income statement. b. Cost of goods sold, employment expense, marketing expenses and other expenses as a percentage of sales have decreased over the period 2009-2012 whereas occupancy expense and depreciation and amortization expense as a percentage of sales have increased over the same period. c. The company has been efficient in controlling certain costs and expenses with the increase in sales. The increase in depreciation and amortization is due to increase in total assets. Step Six Over the period, the sales have increased 22.1 percent showing improved performance by the company. However, the profit margins have declined because of the increasing expenses over the same period. The company has proved to be inefficient in controlling its administrative and selling expenses which have all increased compared to the base year 2009. The company has been holding too much inventory in its warehouses which has increased its management expense s. On the other hand, the company has been prudent in controlling its direct costs which has helped them improve their gross margins. Similarly, this could also happen due to the accumulated inventory which would be priced lower in the inflationary period. Step Seven a. Appended figure 5 shows the trend analysis on several balance sheet item totals from 2009-2012. b. This clearly explains the trend which signifies that the falling ROE is due to the increase in the equity by 26.2 % but with no cumulative effect on the net profits which have been declining during the same time. On the other hand, the assets have increased by 3.3% whereas the earnings before interest and tax have declined over the period; again the reason for the falling ROA. c. ROE measures the return to the equity holders- the owners of the company where as ROA measures the ability of the company in using its resources to make profits for the all stakeholders-owners as well as creditors. (Keiso 1999) d. ROA would be considered a better measure by the investors. It is because is measures the returns to all the stakeholders- the owners as well as lenders. Likewise, it also measures the ability of the company in the usage of the resources. It helps in evaluation the management of the company as well. (Keiso 1999) Step Eight a. Appended figure 6 shows the calculations and the ratios. b. The dividend payout ratio

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Comparing IFRS to GAAP Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Comparing IFRS to GAAP - Coursework Example This document will focus on specific differences and similarities between IFRS and GAAP as applicable in businesses across the globe. Although GAAP and IFRS are similar in their application and usually results to uniform results, there are slight variations arise where GAAP and IFRS offer options due to the nature of the business, company’s interpretation of principles, industry practices and details of transactions. The FASB and IASB have adopted criteria for fair measurement of financial instruments in order to reflect the fair value of business assets and liabilities. Fair value is used to refer to the current market value of the financial instruments. The boards have adopted two steps to ensure fair value measurements whereby businesses are supposed to record particular financial instruments to reflect their current market value. The approaches include â€Å"disclosure of the fair value information in the notes† and â€Å"fair value option† that allows companies to record particular financial instruments at fair value in the financial report. However, IFRS differ from US GAAP in some ways because IFRS examines specific loans and debtors to ensure the same is not impaired, and. In addition, GAAP and IFRS employ different criteria for recording a factoring transaction whereby, IFRS applies the combination of methods dealing with reward, risk and loss control whereas GAAP applies t he loss of control as the chief method. Also, GAAP takes into consideration the incomplete derecognition of receivables while IFRS does not allow incomplete derecognition of receivables (Kimmel, 2013). Depreciation refers to distribution or spread of costs of assets over its useful life according to IFRS (Shamrock, 2012). Depreciation reflects the value of assets over a given period and depicts the potential of that asset to generate income for the business. It portrays the diminishing utility of the asset in business. Depreciation of components is essential when making a major financial decision such as during mergers and acquisitions, when preparing the financial report at the end of the trading period and when disposing of or acquiring additional depreciable assets to reflect the current value of the assets (Shamrock, 2012).

More and More Children Now Spend Most of Their Free Time Locked Away Essay

More and More Children Now Spend Most of Their Free Time Locked Away Playing Games - Essay Example This report approves that the society needs to perform its moral duty by keeping a check on the children. The compressed and restricted life of the modern world makes the adults hostile towards the kids. Children need to explore their physical abilities for which society needs to be lenient towards them. Modern technology gives us a lot of benefits but at the same time it has to pass through the criticism from every walk of life. People especially adults always admire the time they have spent without realizing that it had its own vices. This essay makes a conclusion that parents must accompany their children at the time of purchasing the games. They must look into the content of the game and see if it is suitable for their child or not. Healthy and educational games must be encouraged among children for their healthy growth. At the same time parents should keep a check on the duration of the play. Children must not be allowed to play games for a longer period. Rules must be set down regarding this issue and children should be made to realize the fact that it is actually good for their own health. To conclude it does appear that there is a link between uncontrolled use of video games and the anti social behavior of children. However, if the whole society including the policy makers, game makers, neighbors, schools and parents jointly combines in the effort to modify their children into healthy adults there is no chance technology like video games could have a negative impact on the lives of children. Every one needs to understand his role in the circle for a healthy future.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Comparing IFRS to GAAP Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Comparing IFRS to GAAP - Coursework Example This document will focus on specific differences and similarities between IFRS and GAAP as applicable in businesses across the globe. Although GAAP and IFRS are similar in their application and usually results to uniform results, there are slight variations arise where GAAP and IFRS offer options due to the nature of the business, company’s interpretation of principles, industry practices and details of transactions. The FASB and IASB have adopted criteria for fair measurement of financial instruments in order to reflect the fair value of business assets and liabilities. Fair value is used to refer to the current market value of the financial instruments. The boards have adopted two steps to ensure fair value measurements whereby businesses are supposed to record particular financial instruments to reflect their current market value. The approaches include â€Å"disclosure of the fair value information in the notes† and â€Å"fair value option† that allows companies to record particular financial instruments at fair value in the financial report. However, IFRS differ from US GAAP in some ways because IFRS examines specific loans and debtors to ensure the same is not impaired, and. In addition, GAAP and IFRS employ different criteria for recording a factoring transaction whereby, IFRS applies the combination of methods dealing with reward, risk and loss control whereas GAAP applies t he loss of control as the chief method. Also, GAAP takes into consideration the incomplete derecognition of receivables while IFRS does not allow incomplete derecognition of receivables (Kimmel, 2013). Depreciation refers to distribution or spread of costs of assets over its useful life according to IFRS (Shamrock, 2012). Depreciation reflects the value of assets over a given period and depicts the potential of that asset to generate income for the business. It portrays the diminishing utility of the asset in business. Depreciation of components is essential when making a major financial decision such as during mergers and acquisitions, when preparing the financial report at the end of the trading period and when disposing of or acquiring additional depreciable assets to reflect the current value of the assets (Shamrock, 2012).

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Economic of Apples over Price Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Economic of Apples over Price - Essay Example So the price elasticity is always negative I completed my Bachelors in Commerce last academic year. The choices in front of me to continue my studies were Masters in Commerce of Masters in Business Administration. I opted for Master in Business Administration. My next best alternative was Masters in Commerce. I evaluated the money I will be spending in doing Masters in Commerce and Business Administration. Also I calculated the benefits (my salary) I will be drawing after my course. In Commerce I will learn more of trade and Accountancy. Whereas in Business Administration I will learn overview of business administration, management principles and strategies in managing the businesses. My earnings as manager are more when compared to my earnings as Accountant. As a manager my learning, personality also grows. I can as well start my own venture. Business Administration gives more exposure to businesses around the world. Business administration is more practical and the approach is so. The choice to specialize in interested field is more with business administration. And job rotation is easier in Business administration. In my career I will managing businesses rather than do the tasks. The job involves decision making and strategy making. And the horizon I would work on is broader. All this sounded interesting to me.

Monday, October 14, 2019

DropBox Case Essay Example for Free

DropBox Case Essay Dropbox was created in 2007 and launched to the public a year later. It was founded by Drew Houston and Arash Ferdowski; who were classmates together at MIT in the early 2000’s. The created a product that allows you to sync you computers together by using a cloud to share files between the different computers. At the time of creation there were existing products in the market but they believed that they created a product that would simplify the process as well as make it secure and reliable for the customers. Their plan was to differentiate themselves form their competitors based off these factors. For a customer of Dropbox it allows them to easily and reliably share files between their computers or devices. They believed that the existing products were unreliable and would only allow u to share a certain amount of files. Their product would be reliable and easy to use for the customers. They would also get a free 2G worth of space or could but additional space if they needed to. This is something seen by a few competitors but not all of them. They also created a product that can be used for both business and personal use. Dropbox will do something that also differentiates itself form their competitor. They will use Amazons server to provide the customers space the store files. This will be rented from Amazon and will drastically decrease the amount of money they spend to provide space. Owning their own servers will be costly to purchase and maintain for Dropbox. They also only hired engineers to their company in the early going to be able to continue to improve the technology they are providing. To keep improving their product they offered beta testers the opportunity to test the product and see how they like it. They also listened to their customers after the launched to see what they liked and did not like. This led them to develop a feature of the product that allows the customer to provide feedback to the company. They also observed users using the product to see if it fit the needs of a  basic user, which turned out to be very beneficial to the company. Dropbox launched their product in 2008. While the product was still in beta it began to gain customers through various websites and technological competitions for startup companies. This allowed Dropbox to get their name out there to the people who most likely are already using similar products or have the need for this product. When they launched the product they used the freemium business model where they offered free use for up to 2G of space and you could pay a premium for more space. They wanted to grow rapidly in the market to gain as big of market share as possible in the shortest amount of time. They also found great success from word of mouth referrals and viral marketing campaigns. Dropbox’s biggest problem they needed to solve early on was their customer acquisition rate. They found that in the early going to cost about 300 dollars per customer they had pay. This was due to the amount of free space given away to the amount that people were paying for. This does not set them up to be successful financially if it didn’t improve. Dropbox was able to figure this out and lower their costs but utilizing more word of mouth referrals. Dropbox was fortunate enough to have backers that supported their company in the early going with enough money to keep the company going until they could gain the following needed to decrease costs. They have a greater opportunity for profit then most of their competitors because of their use of Amazon’s server instead of buying and maintaining their own, especially with the decreasing rate of renting server space.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Virgin Atlantic Market Segmentation

Virgin Atlantic Market Segmentation Provide a hypothetical ROMI analysis if Virgin spent an extra  £5m in marketing based on a 25% margin, 10% for costs, against  £500m in sales, what is the break even on the  £5m extra investment, provide the calculations and critical analysis. INTRODUCTION The marketing department is certainly at the heart of any organization, since it is responsible for setting, implementing, and evaluating marketing strategies to meet the customers wants and needs, and to retain customers so as to build profit and sustain the business. Smith and Rapin (2008) stated that marketing success is always driven by a thorough understanding of the market and a set of strong marketing strategies. They have advocated measuring the marketing performances of many companies in recent years. This trend of measuring marketing activities also was noted by McDonald and Mouncey (2009), who observed that increasingly, boards of directors and marketers desire to evaluate market performances to show how marketing boosts shareholder value and whether a firm is accomplishing its marketing objectives. There is a need to understand the business, to develop a framework, and to quantify the performance of marketing objectives and programmes. Furthermore, Ambler (2003) defined the term marketing metrics, which is a measure of the whole businesss marketing performance, and suggested employing a portfolio of metrics to increase the accuracy of the results. Rust et al. (2004) found that a company employing market metrics to forecast future uncertainties and directions has enhanced resource allocation, since better decisions can be made by drawing on lessons from the past. Therefore, measuring marketing performance, a company can improve its marketing efficiency and effectiveness, identify its strengths and weaknesses, establish precise insights between the investment in marketing activities and the financial value that investment generates, and so forth. The purpose of this essay is to develop a practical framework of marketing metrics for Virgin Atlantic Airways to measure its marketing efforts and identify its challenges. The essay begins by (1) presenting the business model for Virgin Atlantic Airways, (2) identifying the correct marketing metrics for Virgin Atlantic and evaluating those, and (3) calculating the marketing performance by computing the return on marketing investment (ROMI) of the campaign spending and a break-even analysis of the airlines new offer. PART I BUSINESS MODEL OF VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS Company Overview Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited (Virgin Atlantic) is Britains second largest long-haul international airline. Apart from scheduled services, Virgin Atlantic operates cargo transport services, flies to 31 destinations around the world using 37 aircraft, the average age of which is approximately six years (it has one of youngest fleets worldwide), carries nearly six million passengers each year, and employs nearly 9,000 people currently (Civil Aviation Authority, 2009 a; Virgin Atlantic, 2009 c). Virgin Atlantic is a subsidiary company and the best-known business in the Virgin Group Ltd. (Virgin Group), which possesses a 51% stake of it, with the remainder having been sold to Singapore Airlines so the two airlines could operate together as a strategic partnership (Virgin Atlantic, 2009 c). Virgin Atlantic was founded in the U.K. in 1984. Its founder, Richard Branson, was motivated by three problems of the airline industry in that time: flights were expensive, companies lacked innovation, and long-haul flights were monotonous and uncomfortable (Twivy, 1986). Therefore, Richard established Virgin Atlantic and differentiated its brand with other airlines by positioning fun, quality, and innovation as its core brand values. This can be seen from the airlines vision statement: to provide the highest quality innovative service at excellent value for money for all classes of air travellers. Its objective is to fly a profitable airline that people love to fly and where people love to work (Virgin Atlantic, 2009 c). Virgin Atlantic is a company setting a new standard for the industry. It was the first to break the cabin hierarchy from a three- to two-class system, to install individual televisions on the seat backs in economy class, to introduce a fully flat sleeping bed in upper class, and to fly using bio-fuel at 30,000 feet (Twivy, 1986 Virgin Atlantic, 2009 c). Its innovative and unique offerings are great contributing factors to its having won many business, customer service, and trade awards worldwide. To sum up, the offers and value that Virgin Atlantic gives were a marked revolution for the airline industry. Business Map The map above is created by summarising from the student information pack, Financial Information Press Kit Full Press Information Kit 2009 at (Notice: The customer section indicated above is only concerned with the passenger market). Appendixes A and B describe Virgin Atlantics current strategies and market segmentation. Industry Highlights The airline industry can be classified as either business logistics or passenger. Those that specialize in air-passenger transport can further divided into scheduled and non-scheduled services. In recent years, the low-cost carriers of the scheduled market have grown rapidly, while the high-cost carriers are continually struggling to grow (Manley, 2009). Many airlines offer three flying classes for its passengers-first, business, and economy class-and they set different prices for the different segments. In terms of the consumer, the purchaser may not be the ultimate user of the service, so it is necessary for airlines to recognise the different needs of decision makers and users. Recently, the industry has been suffering during the economy downturn. In such conditions, more companies tend to downgrade their travel policies, so first and business class flights are being decreased sharply (Shaw, 2007). For airlines to maintain their business, they always have to pay for high operating and fixed expenditures (Civil Aviation Authority, 2009 b). Furthermore, economic, political, and legal changes, weather, and changes of fuel prices can have a significant impact on airlines (Manley, 2009). Many airlines attempt to cooperate with other similar airlines to serve more destinations, to be more convenient for customers, and to retain customer by rewarding with frequent flyer miles. (Appendix C describes Detailed Industry Overview) SOWT Analysis SWOT analysis is a tool that illustrates a companys strengths and weaknesses (its internal environment) related to its competitors and what opportunities and threats it faces (its external environment) (Capon, 2009). Virgin Atlantic strengths are its strong brand image, its innovation for setting a new industry standard, its excellent customer service products, its close interactions with its customers (Virgin Atlantic, 2009 a), and its strategic alliances with other quality airlines that offer more destinations (Virgin Atlantic, 2009 c). Its weaknesses are that it is too reliant on Branson (a sharp drop in sales occurred after Bransons death), weak in the economy class-leisure market, and offers only limited destinations. Its opportunities are to target new segments of customers due to the aging of the population, to improve its service quality to become a five-star airline in Skytrax, and to reach more destinations to increase its market share. It is vulnerable  (threats) to losing its customers due to the open-skies agreement (less regulation of flights between the E.U. and the U.S.), to intense pressure from the rapid growth of low-cost carriers, recession, new industrial regulations, terrorist attacks, and soaring oil prices. (Appendix D and Appendix E discuss PESTEL analysis of the airline industry and Competitors analysis for Virgin Atlantic) PART II MARKETING METRICS FOR VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS After reviewing of Virgin Atlantic, I would recommend a number of crucial marketing metrics, which can be categorised into the following four performance aspects: financial-related (or shareholder), market-related, brand-related and customer-related. The following paragraphs explain why these were selected and discuss the measurement needs and impacts on the decision-making process of each metrics. Finally, recommendations and limitation of the framework are drawn. Profit is the most important factor for a company to survive. Kerin and Sethuraman (1998) pointed out that marketers always monitor financial performance because increasing earnings and cash flow turnout increases shareholder values made, and all marketing activities are funding by it. Therefore it is need to measure the financial-related performance which at least three metrics can used to monitor Virgins profit and cost how efficiency of Virgin spend and generate profit-return on marketing investment (ROMI), return on sales (or profit margin), and net sales contribution. Firstly, return on marketing investment is the percentage of net profit generated by marketing activities divided by total marketing expenditures. ROMI measures how marketing expenditures contribute to profits and is used to insight into the profitability of Virgins marketing activities. Secondly, return on sales is the net profit as a percentage of the sales revenue, which measures how company efficiency generates profits from sales turnovers and downplays spending, since net profits are equal to sales revenue minus total cost. Virgin Atlantic can use the above metrics to understand itself and the market by comparing these metrics against its key competitors or industries. Other important indictors related to financial performance include sales, gross profits, profit before taxes, and liquidity ratio, which do not require metrics since they can be easily obtained from the companys financial statements. Ambler (2003) observed that managers always concern the financial performance, and ignore other non-financial activities, for instance, sales is driven by customers indeed. Therefore customer is definitely needed to measure. Before marketing department is responsible for attracting and retaining customers-without customers, identifying who target customers are is also important, how they generate profit to Virgin. So, retention and churn, customer profitability, customer lifetime value, and net sales contribution can include. Firstly, retention rate is the percentage of customers a company is able to retaining over time, which also measures customer loyalty, while churn measures the percentage of customers lost. If the retention rate is low, the company has to spend more effort to retain its customers since it costs less than attracting new customers. If it is high, marketers should investigate the profitability of its relationships; to measure this, customer profitability can be emp loyed. Customer profitability is the profitability of customers based on the differences in customer revenue and cost, helps the company identify the most profitable customers. Farris et al (2006) suggest a process to calculating it: sorting customers net profits, grouping customers by the customers profits in 10 deciles, then it can show the distribution of profit generated by each group. Normally, the profitability of the top group is between 150 to 300% (ibid). Fourthly, customer lifetime value is an estimation of the customer value in the number of years the customer is expected to purchase a given product, which measures the worth of a customer as a loyal purchaser of the companys products or services. It is important to be aware that metrics are rough estimations since input data is difficult to predict and may change over time. Fifthly, net sales contribution is the sales generated from a specific segment divided by total sales. It measures how well the segment performed with in all segments and insights which segments contribute the most to sales. The metrics mentioned above are valuable to mangers to identify profitable customers and which marketing programs can be developed to reinforce the customer relationship with them (Davis, 2007). Other important indictors related to customer performance include purchase frequency, average amount per transaction or sales, and the number of customers or new customers from transaction support systems. Market performance and trends directly link to financial result, and are indictors for manger since they would know how potential of the market. No surprising, the measurement of market-related aspects is also needed. The break-even analysis, market share and growth, and category share, can be included. Firstly, break-even analysis is a tool for projecting the use of a new product or service, which measures how many units will be required at a certain price to reach the break-even point. It can show how changes in price affect sales levels or how many years it will take to break even (Paek, 2000). Therefore, if the market size is not big enough, it is probably not to serve. Secondly, market share is the percentage of Virgins shares owned within the whole market which can calculate by the number of customers or sales value. Market growth is similar to market share but shows the percentage increase of this year compared with previous years. Thirdly, category share is the percentage of the number of customers who purchased an item of a specific brand divided by the number of customers who purchased an item under a specific category, measuring the popularity of a brand. Over time, market share, market growth, and category share provides marketers insight about Virgins performance sales against its competitors by monitoring the growth of the company and its competitors and consumer trends within the market, but category share shows more details about category growth, for example, whether customers were acquired from competitors or if total users were gained under the same category. According to McDonald, M. and Mouncey, P. (2009), brand account for at least 20 % of the companys asset, it helps customer to distinguish the company and its product among competitors, so it is indispensable to measure, but the challenges are many approaches available and difficult to qualify. The measurement of brand-related for Virgin can include brand awareness and loyalty, and customer satisfaction. Firstly, Brand Awareness measure the proportion of potential customers and consumers recognised the brand while brand loyalty is measured by usage, how was the frequency customers purchased a brand. Awareness, loyalty top of mind (the first brand in a customer mind within a given category), attitudes (the degree of customer belief towards a given brand) can simultaneously be measured by conducting a survey. Those can insight the brand location in the customers heart which influences customer purchasing behaviours and the sales. More importantly, recognizing consumer and non-consumer g roup is needed since results of them is always different (Gupta Lehmann, 2005). Secondly, customer satisfaction is a rating to measure customers experiences on specific aspects, also measured by a survey. It shows how well of their offers meets customers expectations. However, the selection of survey respondent should be careful, high satisfaction may not mean all the customers are satisfied; some disappointed customers may simply leave from the company to competitors before the company noticed. Measuring marketing metrics is a continuous process, which should be done regularly (Patterson, 2005). Over time, metrics can illustrate the effectiveness of marketing strategies and tactics and market changes. More importantly, the measurement methods of metrics also changes over time; methods currently employed are considered state-of-the-art. Although Virgin can use the above models, still reminding other intangible factors cannot be measured, such as relationships, reputation and trust, culture and values, skills and competencies, knowledge, and processes and systems. These are important because of generating value for a company, and account for the majority of a companys assets (McDonald and Mouncey, 2009). In conclusion, the metrics recommended to asses Virgins marketing outcomes involve the following performances areas: financial-related (or shareholder), market-related, brand-related and customer-related. Working with these metrics Virgin can monitor its revenue and spending, identify and retain the valuable customers, identify the chance expanding its market, insight customer perception towards the brand. PART III MARKETING CAMPAIGN FOR VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS Marketing Challenge and Strategy Virgin Atlantic feared that the E.U./U.S. Open Skies Agreement, introduced in March 2008 (Stewart, 2007), would have a negative impact for the future of its market share. Virgin Atlantic may lose part of its customers, since 40% of Virgin Atlantics business class-travel now is between the U.S. and Europe (Foresight, 2008). No doubt Virgin Atlantic needs to retain its customers or to expand into other new markets. According to the World Tourism Organization, the route that serves the most passengers between the U.S. and London airports is between London and New York (ibid.). Virgin Atlantic plans to offer frequent business travellers an exclusive private luxury flight experience, operating a twice daily flight between London and New York, and pricing the ticket at  £1000. Virgin Atlantic also decided to initiate a marketing campaign by using TV commercials and outdoor advisements near the airports to raise Virgin Atlantics brand awareness among business travellers who fly often between New York and London. The target audiences are frequent flight business travellers or upscale leisure passengers (those who fly an average of ten times a year), male, aged 25 to 65, with more than  £50,000 income per year. The following section employs two metrics, the break-even analysis and return on marketing investment, to forecast and measure Virgin Atlantics marketing performance. Assumptions: the objective profit margin for the campaign was expected to be 25 %; the 10% overhead on its sales generated; the extra sales generated by the campaign are  £15 million; the operational and variable cost for flights twice a daily per year is  £24 million; the extra marketing expenditure for the campaign is  £ 2 million; the price of a flight is  £1,000; the average number of flights per consumer is ten per year; the net profit contribution is 24 %; the year of customer loyal and purchasing the tickets 10 times a year is 5 years. Calculation of Break even for new business-classes flights Customer Equity per year= price of flight * average flight times a year =  £1,000 * 10=  £ 10,000 Customer Lifetime equity= Customer Equity per year * period of year remains as a frequent flight business travellers =  £ 10,000*5 = £ 50,000 Customer Lifetime net profit= Customer Lifetime equity * Net profit contribution = £ 50,000 * 0.25= £ 12,500 Number of customers need to Break-even= operational and variable cost for flights twice a day per year / Customer Lifetime net profit = £ 24m /  £12,500 = 1,920 If Virgin Atlantic can have 1,920 frequent flight customers who purchase the flight for 5 years, and 10 times per year, then this project will reach break even points. Calculation of ROMI Campaign profits = assumed profit margin * extra sales generated = 25% * £15 million = £3.75 million However, the campaign was overhead 10% in the  £15 million sales, Extra cost for campaign= overhead percentage * extra sales generated = 10% * £15 million sales = £1.5 million Net profit generated from the campaign = Campaign profits -Extra cost for campaign =  £3.75 million- £1.5 million =  £ 2.25 million. ROMI = (Net Profit generated from the campaign / Campaign cost) *100% = ( £ 2.25 m /  £ 2 m)*100% =112.5 % The result of ROMI is positive which means that marketing spending is deemed. As the extra cost  £ 2 million is needed for the campaign, the break even point will be changed as follows: Calculation of Post-Break even for new business-classes flights with extra cost in marketing. Customer Equity per year= price of flight * average flight times a year =  £1,000 * 10=  £ 10,000 Customer Lifetime equity= Customer Equity per year * period of year remains as a frequent flight business travellers =  £ 10,000*5 = £ 50,000 Customer Lifetime net profit= Customer Lifetime equity * Net profit contribution = £ 50,000 * 0.25= £ 12,500 Total cost for flights twice a day per year = operational and variable cost for flights twice a day per year + extra marketing cost =  £ 24 million + £ 2 million = £ 26 million Number of customers need to Break-even= Total cost for flights twice a day per year / Customer Lifetime net profit = £ 26m /  £12,500 = 2,080 The break-even analysis indicated that Virgin Atlantic will need 2,080 frequent flight customers who will purchase the flight ten times per year for five years to reach the break-even point for the whole new route with the new marketing campaign in play. After reaching 2,080 customers, the company will start to make a profit. The break-even analysis is computed twice to show the different outcomes if extra marketing spending is added. In fact, as the costs increase, the number of customers needed increases as well. Therefore, if the managers believe it is easy to reach the break-even point, the airline is likely to launch this route. As the break-even analysis uses customer lifetime equity for the calculations, it is possible for that the break-even point may fail to be met in the short term, but for long-term outlooks and for retaining customers, it still can be profitable (Dwyer, 1999). The positive ROMI indicates that the activity is healthy. If ROMI is equal to 100%, this means the marketing campaign will break even. To compute the ROMI, the cost is needed, as Amber (2003) mentioned that sales revenues may not increase immediately after advertising begins, and it is difficult to determine whether the costs belong to the marketing department. Furthermore, spending decreases can result in maximizing the ROMI, so balancing expenses with marketing expenses with ROMI is also important (Lenskold, 2004). (3392 words)

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Divine Comedy - Contrapasso of Dante’s Inferno Essay examples -- Divin

Inferno - Contrapasso In Dante’s Inferno, Dante takes a journey with Virgil through the many levels of Hell in order to experience and see the different punishments that sinners must endure for all eternity. As Dante and Virgil descend into the bowels of Hell, it becomes clear that the suffering increases as they continue to move lower into Hell, the conical recess in the earth created when Lucifer fell from Heaven. Dante values the health of society over self. This becomes evident as the sinners against society experience suffering greater than those suffer which were only responsible for sinning against themselves. Dante uses contrapasso, the Aristotelian theory that states a soul’s form of suffering in Hell contrasts or extends their sins in their life on earth, to ensure that the sinners never forget their crimes against God. Even though some of the punishments the sinners in Hell seem arbitrary, they are fitting because contrapasso forces each sinner to re-live the most horrible aspect of their sin to ensure they never forget their crimes against God. As Dante and Virgil, Dante’s guide through Hell, approach the Gate of Hell, Dante reads the inscription above the gates: â€Å"Through me the way to the suffering city, through me the way to the eternal pain, through me the way that runs among the lost. Justice urged on my high artificer; my maker was divine authority, the highest wisdom and the primal love. Before me nothing but eternal things were made, and I endure eternally. Abandon every hope, who enter here.†Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (III, 48) This message accurately describes how those souls will experience contrapasso in Hell. They will never be released and will experience suffering for eternity. The first line speaks of a... ...ouls to exist. It is a fitting punishment because he wanted to rule like God. Now he does, but he rules over the souls who could not achieve the presence of God after death. Dante efficiently uses contrapasso to punish the souls that sinned in their lifetimes. All the sinners experience ultimate suffering as they act to extend or continue their sin for eternity. The suffering in Hell is ultimately unbearable, regardless of the nature of sin. The sinners have no hope of their condition becoming any better because the only change will be at the Final Judgment. Then their punishments will be perfected because they will then have bodies and a new way to experience suffering. Contrapasso ensures that these souls will exist in an eternity of complete despair.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Works Cited: Alighieri, Dante. Inferno. Trans. Mark Musa. NY: Penguin Books, 1984.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Power of Concentration

The Power of Concentration By Remez Sasson When I was a child, I saw how a magnifying glass could burn a piece of paper, when the rays of the sun were focused through it. The fire could start only when the sun's rays were concentrated to a small point. When the magnifying glass was moved too far away or too close to the paper, the rays were not focused enough and nothing happened. This experience describes vividly the power of concentration. This power can be described as focused attention. It is the ability to direct the attention to one single thought or subject, to the exclusion of everything else.When our mind is focused, our energies are not dissipated on irrelevant activities or thoughts. This is why developing concentration is essential to anyone who aspires to take charge of his or her life. This skill is essential for every kind of success. Without it, our efforts get scattered, but with it, we can accomplish great things. Concentration has many uses and  benefits. It assi sts in studying and understanding faster, improves the memory, and helps in focusing on any task, job, activity or goal, and achieving it more easily and efficiently.It is also required for developing psychic powers, and is a powerful tool for the efficient use of creative visualization. When this ability is developed, the mind obeys us more readily and does not engage in futile, negative thoughts or worries. We gain mental mastery and we experience true peace of mind. This ability also plays an important role in meditation. Without it, the mind just jumps restlessly from one thought to another, not allowing us to meditate properly. Do you now realize, why it is very important and worthwhile to develop and improve the ability to concentrate?To develop this power you need to train and exercise it. Forget all your excuses about not having the time or being too busy. Do not say that the circumstances are not appropriate or that you cannot find a quiet place to exercise. With a little p lanning, desire and motivation you can always find the time to exercise each day, no matter how busy you are. The Restless Mind Thoughts claim our attention incessantly, and waste our time and energy on unimportant and useless matters. They actually rule our life. We have become so used to this slavery, that we take it for granted, and have become nconscious of this habit, except on certain occasions. While breathing, we do not need to pay attention to each inhalation and exhalation. We become conscious of the process of breathing, only when we have some difficulty with breathing, such as when our nose is clogged, due to a cold, or when we are in an unventilated room. It is the same with thinking. We become conscious of the constant onslaught of our thoughts, and of our inability to calm them down, only when we need to concentrate, solve a problem or study.We are also acutely aware of them when we have worries or fears. Look at the following familiar situation. You need to study som ething for your job or for an exam. You sit comfortably on the sofa with the book in your hands and start reading. After a while you feel hungry and go to the kitchen to eat something. You return to read, and then hear you people talking outside. You listen to them for several moments and then bring your attention back to the book. After a while you feel restless and switch on the radio to listen to some music.You continue to read for a little while, and then remember something that happened yesterday, and you start thinking about it. When you look at your watch, you are amazed to find out that one complete hour has passed and you have hardly read anything. This is what happens when one lacks concentration. Imagine what you could have accomplished, if you could control your attention and focus your mind! Work that requires physical strength, such as carrying heavy loads for example, develops physical strength. Yet, it is not as exercising daily to the gym in a systematic manner.It i s the same with concentration. Reading, studying and trying to pay attention to what we do, develop some of this ability, but practicing exercises diligently each day is something else, it is like training in a gym. Inner resistance to developing concentration In order to develop this ability we have to train our minds. Most people think that concentration is a strenuous and tiring activity, and that it involves exertion and tension, which are difficult and unpleasant. This belief starts at an early age.Parents and teachers expect children to study, do their homework and get good grades. This brings up in the children a feeling of being coerced and forced to do something they don't like doing. When they are too often told that they are not concentrating good enough, they develop a loathing for concentration, and often for studying too. These become associated with coercion, lack of freedom, doing something they do not like to do, and which is against their will. When they grow up, i t is no wonder that their powers of concentration are weak, and they have no desire to strain their minds.Though most people acknowledge the fact that good concentration is a great asset, yet most of them do nothing to strengthen it, because they don't know how, and because they lack the motivation. It is hoped that this article will provide the necessary information and motivation. Concentration can be fun, if approached in the right way. It should be practiced with joy, positive attitude, optimism, and understanding of its great possibilities. The benefits of developing concentration Sometimes you can find strong powers of concentration in yourself.When you really and earnestly want to excel in your studies, pass an important exam or solve a problem, this power becomes available to you. In such cases, it appears because of some need or desire, but developing it in a systematic way brings it under your control, and grants you the ability to use it intentionally, whenever you need i t. To do so, you need to practice special exercises on a daily basis. Here is what you can gain by developing this power: -Control of your thoughts. -The ability to focus your mind. -Peace of mind. -Freedom from futile and annoying thoughts. -The ability to choose your thoughts. Better memory. -Self-confidence. -Inner strength. -Will power. -Decisiveness. -The ability to study and comprehend more quickly. -Inner happiness. -Enhanced capability to develop psychic abilities. -More powerful and efficient use of creative visualization. -Enhanced ability to meditate. -And much more†¦ Seems too good to be true? Develop the power of concentration and find out for yourself! So what about starting to develop concentration power today? In part two of this article you will find advice and exercises for developing and strengthening this ability. The Power of Concentration Part Two

Thursday, October 10, 2019

How Religion is Detrimental to Human Enlightenment Essay

Religion has bequeathed us with numerous powers to live, breathe in peace, and capture our soul to realize the truth of ourselves and divine. The whole concept of religion lies in the fact that it binds us with our imperceptible creator and enables us to visualize our self and our esteem perquisite hidden power. But to this religion only, we owe extreme form of fundamentalism and fanaticism that since centuries and as far as our history goes have been detrimental to the basic core of all our religions and religious faiths. Religious doctrines of almost all over the world laid down principles of the life for their respective societies: how they will live and follow their religious rituals? These religious practices prepared persons in their respective societies to live in harmony with each other and maintain the cordial ambience with their environment. Almost all the religions of the world adopted their own religious belief systems. But when these systems take an extreme form of fundamentalism and show their aggression and disbelief against other religious groups and faith, they hurt at the most fundamental concepts of human lives on which religions are based. They make religion as the most hatred thing in the world and turn it into the most inauspicious aspect for human enlightenment. Religion enlightens by inculcating within the people the moral values on which the human life and society is flourishing but when the propagators of these moral values use the religious beliefs and religion to instigate their fame and for their own commercial purposes, this religion only becomes a darker phase in their life. Just when 16th century began to shower the new rays of hope on the mother Earth, Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, an Italian political philosopher, diplomat poet, playwright and musician wrote, â€Å"We Italians are irreligious and corrupt above others. †¦.. because the church and her representatives have set us the worst example. †1 According to Machiavelli, religion became just a mere tool in the hands of ruling powers to change the mind set of the public according to their own needs and aspirantions. And its happening till today. This world of today is witness to the massive force of ruling class using religion to meet their political and commercial needs. Cotton Mather, writing of a former condition which he would admired to have renewed in his own time, said: â€Å"New England being a country whose interests are remarkbaly in ecclesiastical circumstances, ministers ought to concern themselves in politics. † 2 Further said by Cobb, in the early days, the clergy had a greater influence on the minsteral affairs and the influence was so much that they with their ruling power could bring magistrates and courts too to their dictate. This led number of clergies to misuse the power and made the religion as an instrument of bigotry and superstition. 3 The clergy, political class and other religious fanatics made religion an arena of superstition and doctrine of blind faith that did not believe in the new thoughts of this scientific and highly technological advanced world of today and made religion deterimental to Human enlightenment. Human enlightenment endows the knowledge and awakening of human values and the knowledge of scientific truths and temperament that has made our life at ease. Science wants us to solve all problems of our life through deep regressive thoughts and our own efforts. Atheists began to instigate the adherance to religion and God within us. They believe that no divine power can solve our problem and prayer is just a wastage of time. 4 1 Burckhardt, pp. 272 2 Cobb, pp. 237 3 Cobb, pp. 237 4. Cronish, para 2, Online Edition In fact even Albert Ellis, PhD, said, â€Å"If religion is defined as man’s dependence on a power above and beyond the human, then, as a psychotherapist, I find it to be exceptionally pernicious. Religion, first of all, is not self-interest – it is god-interest. Religiosity is essentially masochism and both are forms of mental sickness. All religions contend that their super-human entities cannot be humanly experienced and that their gods and their principles are beyond science. Religion is†¦ directly opposed to the goals of mental health. †5 Religion beckons us to follow spiritual life but the way religious doctrines are propagated and publicized and mould the mental attitude of the people, they are going even against the moral values that are so basic for a person to be human. The politicians, religious heads and other fanatics are misusing the religious doctrines to spread among human race superstition, blind faith, sins, violence chaos and disorder. History is clear proof to show how since ages poltical rulers and religious heads are degrading the religious doctrines and misrepresenting them to fulfill their own aims and are spreading useless dogmas, corrupt powerhouses, chaos and confusion and thus result in making the religious values as a sole detrimental to Human enlightenment. The religious texts of almost all the religions of the world have been written by humans, that are centuries old, in their own language and style that people of today’s generation are not able to comprehend and take out the extract what lies beneath the hidden text. This lack of understanding belies the own faith and life style of the contemporary world. As Christopher Hitchens in â€Å"God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything† said that as religion has impeded people to treat other persons in a just manner and it is not necessary to learn the basic human values and human relations from religion or religious doctrines. Human relations come 5 Cronish, para 2, Online Edition from human own needs and aspirations. Sam Harris, Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens state that â€Å"Religion and churches are manufactured, and this salient fact is too obvious to ignore. †6 And according to Dawkins, â€Å"The manufacturing and growth of religion is best described in evolutionary terms: Religions, like languages, evolve with sufficient randomness, from beginnings that are sufficiently arbitrary, to generate the bewildering – and sometimes dangerous – richness of diversity. †7 And Harris delving into the historicity of the religious tradition and doctrine states that â€Å"The Bible, it seems certain, was the work of sand-strewn men and women who thought the earth was flat and for whom a wheelbarrow would have been a breathtaking example of emerging technology. †8 He further states that it was not even the work of sand-strewn men but several written pieces were pierced together and compiled to give shape to the bible. Further elaborating Dawkins states that, â€Å"Ever since the nineteenth century, scholarly theologians have made an overwhelming case that the gospels are not reliable accounts of what happened in the history of the real world. †9 It implies that the bible and almost the majority of the religious texts were written taking in view the social, culture, political turmoil that were affecting the people of that time and period but that can be relevant to this time and period too if properly interpreted and comprehended. But unfortunately this is not happening, Hitechens wants to tell us that all our academic studies, like â€Å"the sciences of textual criticism, archaeology, physics, and molecular biology have shown religious myths to be false and man-made. †10 Science has proved that all religions are construed by 6 Fish, para 1,Online Edition 7 Fish, para 1, Online Edition 8 Fish, para 1, Online Edition 9 Fish, para 2, Online Edition 10 Fish, para 3, Online Edition men for their own purpose and it was the man of that time and age who wrote the textual books. Titus Lucretius Carus, Roman poet of first century B. C in his magnificent rendered opus De Rerum Natura postered the view that, â€Å"But ’tis that same religion oftener far Hath bred the foul impieties of men. †11 He held the belief that the world was made up of matter and void, and everything in the world is learned and understood purely from nature and that all the religions of the world are born because of the fear that people faced because of the dangers that nature had in store for them in their primitive stage and their ignorance about the world around, about themselves and about everything that were part and parcel of their life. Humans were afraid of fire that is why they started worshiping fire, they were afraid of animals so they made many of the animals their deity. Slowly and slowly, they turned their worshipping into rituals that necessiated them to follow in their lifes. Their religious freedom and beliefs strangled their hold on the people’s freedom. Initially they made this beginning to give protective cover to people against discrimination, persecution and oppression but in this momentum, the religious fundamentalists and fanatics made religion too symbol of slavery, persecution and oppression of weaker sects and women. For e. g. many of the propagators of the religions thought it their right to confer discriminatory attitude against gays, force women and children to cover their face with veil. 12 And above all their rights to threaten to death or kill anyone and everyone who comes in front of their religion. In many religions, women’s place is inferior to men. Rev. Jill Nelson, pastor of the Sunshine Cathedral Metropolitan Community Church, commenting on Leviticus 20:13, said, â€Å"It is grounded in the old Jewish understanding that women are less worthy than men. For a man to 11 Lucretius, Book I – Proem, Line 3-4. 12 Namazie, Online Edition. have sex with another man ‘as with a woman’ insults the other man, because women are to be treated as property. †13 The most essential needs of our human beings are food, clothing, shelter, leisure and the most important being freedom. It’s the freedom that we all cherish and along-with the freedom need awareness, emotional satisfaction, responsibility towards ourselves and for others. Human beings are enlightened if they get freedom and independence of thoughts and sexuality and many of the religions are snatching this only freedom by putting before us several of their religious doctrines. Though many of the religions like Buddhism and Christianity say that feeling of essence of spirituality itself is the freedom for you. The New Testament of the Christianity says, â€Å"You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free† implying that knowing the spiritual truth and freedom of choice will give you freedom but in this materialistic and scientific world of today we are not seeking just the freedom of spirituality but freedom in all the way’s of our life, and in all our breath. We cannot grow unless we are free. Karl Marx had an ardent belief that religion is socially construed, and is harmful for human lives as it discourages the down trodden human beings from participating actively in the political, social and economic upheavals of the society as it promises that the faithful people shall be rewarded in the life after. Ruling class treat religion as a tool to suppress the sufferings and down trodden by implying their own modifications of religious doctrines. For their own commercial and social gains, they imbibe the religious textual principles and traits among the poor and hamper their economical progress and independence. 13 Kinney, Online Edition. 14 Muhammad, Online Edition Marx labeled religion as an opium of people because the religion could give poor the momentarily relief but could not make them rid of their prolong sufferings. Secondly, religion gives them dreams of better life after their death. In other words, Marx treats religion as a rout of Escapism. In the words of Marx, â€Å"The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo. †15 Marx says that the concept of sin so highly delivered by Christian doctrine is anti-social as Christian doctrine is inherent in the nature of human beings that becomes the part of the misery and Marx says that sins are socially planned and implemented and ought to be changed. It is the world of man, man is a part of this state and society, and it is this society that religion own its existence to. To ignore religion means to ignore the roots of our civilization, its monuments, its beliefs and practices, achievement and the legacy that it had bestowed onto us by our ancestors. If we do not have our own religious faith, its bound to have venomous effect on our own personality but this very religion becomes our enemy when we begin to use its doctrines and principles to embellish our own selfish ends. And this misinterpretation of the religious doctrines, selfishness of the ruling and powerful elite make our religions detrimental to Human Enlightenment. WORKS CITED Burckhardt, Jacob. â€Å"The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy† (Translated by S. G. Middlemore) USA: Penguin Classics, 1990 Cobb, Sanford H. â€Å"The Rise of Religious Liberty in America: A History† Ayer Publishing, 1970. Cornish, Keith S. â€Å"SECULAR SYSTEMS† atheist foundation. org. au Internet (19August 2002) Available: http://www. atheistfoundation. org. au/secularsystems. htm, 10 December 2007 Fish, Stanley. â€Å"Is Religion Man-Made? † Internet (24 June 2007) Available:

Fair Trade Products Essay

Buying Fair Trade Products means buying a better future for everyone. While a cup of coffee may cost around $2. 00, less than $0. 50 goes to the farmers who planted, cultivated and harvested the beans that were ground to make that cup of coffee. $2. 00 is a cup of coffee for you and me but to the farmers in South America, $2. 00 can make the difference between how many meals the farmer and his family can eat. Buying fair trade products ensures that Jose and his children can have 3 square meals a day. Coffee farmers around the world earn less than the cost of producing that single cup of coffee and because of this inequality they are forced into a cycle of poverty and debt (Fridell, 2003). Even when the price of coffee increases in the world market, the coffee farmers are not the ones who benefit from this but the exploitative business men and middle men. The even more distressing fact is that this isn’t limited to coffee alone but also to other commodities such as tea, chocolate, cocoa, bananas, mangoes, grapes, apples and crafts. Nicholls, 2004). Support for Fair Trade Products means that these farmers are not forced in a cycle of poverty and debt. Fair Trade means that these farmers actually have a chance at getting a better future because Fair Trade provides funding, in the form of loans, and also provides technical training and education to these farmers. Yes I want to help, but what is Fair Trade? Fair Trade is a â€Å"trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South. Fair Trade organizations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade† (European Fair Trade Association). What Fair Trade basically does is that ensures that the hard working farmers who grow these products are rewarded for their hard work and given the opportunity to build better futures for themselves and earn a ticket out of poverty. How can I make sure these Farmers get the benefits? With most of the countries pushing for free trade, the situation of these farmers will only get worse. Companies in search of lower expenses and higher profits will always look for the cheapest source even if it is at the expense of others. Supporting Fair Trade Products ensures that the farmers are able to reap the benefits of their hard work because producers who are part of Fair Trade are able to gain access to technical assistance and education as well as funding to encourage the growth of their farms and to improve the efficiency in production (Fridell, 2003). Global Impact of Fair Trade Fair Trade works. A study conducted by Loraine Ronchi of the Poverty Research Unit at the University of Sussex in 2002 shows that â€Å"in light of the coffee crisis of the early 1990s, fair trade can be said to have accomplished its goal of improving the returns to small producers and positively affecting their quality of life and the health of the organizations that represent them locally, nationally and beyond† (Ronchi, 2002). In seven case studies conducted by the Fair Trade Research Group at Colorado State University in 2003, it was shown that Fair Trade has â€Å"in a short time greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families†(Murray, 2003) . These studies found that there was greater access to credit and external development funding, greater access to training and enhanced ability to improve the quality of their coffee for producers under Fair Trade. Fair Trade certification guarantees not only fair prices, but also the principles of ethical purchasing, making sure that there are no labor violations by the companies and that there is a greater transparency throughout the supply chain (Ransom, 2001). There is no doubt that Fair Trade presents a viable solution to much of the worlds development problems and that continued support for Fair Trade products will transform the world into a better place for everyone to live in. Arguments against Fair Trade Those who argue that Fair Trade doesn’t work insist that Fair Trade just encourages inefficiency and makes these farmers dependent on subsidies that are given to them while those who are innovative and efficient are left to their own devises and even penalized (Redfern, 2002). This is a very myopic view of the problem because it assumes that everyone deals honestly and that the middle men do not take advantage of the producers. World Statistics show that during the period from 1970 to 2000, prices for many of the main agricultural exports of developing countries, such as sugar, cotton, cocoa and coffee fell by 30 to 60 percent (Agricultural Commodity Chains, Dependence and Poverty, 2004). This was due to the fact that there was no market intervention and the prices were left to the determination of market forces. The situation has only greatly improved due to the intervention done by Fair Trade as it has helped resurrect many ailing industries by spearheading the development of these industries through direct support of producers under Free Trade (Murray, 2003). It cannot therefore be argued that Fair Trade results in inefficiency in the production of these products. The argument of inefficiency is also weakened by a study conducted in 2005 on Bolivian Coffee Fair Trade Producers as it was shown that certification led to a positive impact on local coffee prices in Yungas not just on Fair Trade certified products but on all products as well (Eberhart, 2005). Yes, you. Even a student can make a difference in the world For every single pound of coffee purchased, Fair Trade ensures that the farmer gets a more substantial amount than he normally would without the benefit of Fair Trade. The extra $0. 50 that the farmer gets per pound of coffee that he sells goes a long way in a developing economy. Add to this the fact that by promoting and encouraging Fair Trade the farmer is able to secure loans and get much needed technical assistance and education, that single cup of coffee you purchase or that pound of coffee you buy, allows the farmer who planted, cultivated and harvested those grains to buy an extra pound of rice or corn and maybe even an extra meal. More Fair Trade Products on Campus If a single student can make a difference, then a whole campus can make a world of difference. There should be more support for Fair Trade Products. Coffee is not the only product that is currently being protected by Fair Trade. There are currently many other goods that are being protected by fair trade: tea, chocolate, cocoa, bananas, mangoes, grapes, apples, soccer balls, and crafts. The next time you go out and buy yourself a cup of coffee or decide to munch on an apple before class, remember that you can make a difference, you can give Jose and his family a better and brighter future. Remember Fair Trade.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Museum of Islamic Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Museum of Islamic Art - Essay Example The Museum of Islamic Art, Doha Islamic art and culture goes back 1,400 years ago to the years of the Prophet through to the eras of the Caliphs and Ottoman Empire. Qatar has been known for the oil boom which led to massive and large scale construction works in the country in the past three decades. Many landmark buildings have been built within this period in strategic locations to maintain the unique features of the region. The Museum of Islamic Art (MIA) is located on the south end of the Doha bay and it is a major building located on the edge of the Doha harbor and it has unique and distinct features that makes it a might build that depicts Islamic arts in architecture, usage and construction. Project Initiation and Location The Museum for Islamic Art was designed by the architect, Ioeh Ming Pei who blended Islamic tradition and monumental modernism to create the structure (Ourousoff 31). The project was commenced in 2004 when the Qatari government announced the desire to build a major structure that will reflect Qatar's bid to become the cultural center of the Arab world (Skinner 1). Actual work and construction activities commenced in 2005 and this ultimately led to the completion of the project in 2006. The project reflected Qatar's quest to present itself as one of the most prosperous economies in the Islamic world with the highest gross domestic products per capita in the world (Skinner 1). This was reflected in the magnitude of the project and the resources committed to its completion. The location of the MIA in the city of Doha also makes it an extremely distinct work of engineering because it required a cross-functional role that involved marine engineers aside the normal construction site to ensure that the project remained within reasonable range. The project is located on a newly created Peninsular or man-made island that is protected by a seawall just off the harbor of Doha in the south of the city (Ourousoff 33). The project is meant to blend a set of different elements and present the Qatari nation and the Islamic world on an exceptional pedestal. First of all, the building involved an architecture that reflected elements of Medieval Arabic architecture that incorporated elements of palaces amongst great Arab leaders. Secondly, the building involved important and carefully calibrated to provide exhibitions for various categories of Islamic history and culture. This include the arrangement of exhibition spaces, galleries, library and an auditorium. The venue is meant to exhibit elements of various stages in Islamic history and will display works of art, numismatics, manuscripts and weapons. Socio-Cultural Elements of Qatar & the Islamic World it Depicts The Museum of Islamic Art was a project that was initiated under the auspices of Qatar's hereditary Al-Thani dynasty as an attempt to enhance Qatar's cultural status. To this end, the MIA was meant to bring together the relics, audience and artists to develop the cultural systems and structures of the country for the future (Hudson para 6). Upon deciding to build the museum, the Qatari Museum Authority, headed by Sheikha Mayassa al-Thani called upon the then 86-year old IM Pei to draw the blueprints and architectural plan for the museum (Hudson para 2). The Chinese-American IM Pei was called for retirement to assist in drawing