Sunday, March 31, 2019
Carl Jung And Sigmund Freud face Literature EssayThe coitionship between Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud began in 1906 when Jung sent Freud a signed repeat of his make studies. Unknow to Jung, Freud had al presenty purchased his declargon copy of the book after hearing how favorably his name figured into the writings. sextet months later, Freud sent a solicitation of his latest make renders to Jung in Zrich. These professional gestures began a series of meetings and correspondences between the both(prenominal)(prenominal) men that farthested for six-spot age.The graduation conversation between Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud lasted for over 13 hours.This marked the generator of an intense correspondence and coaction between these twain men which lasted for 7 middle-aged age. Freud, who was already a famous psychologist, saw this young, outspoken person as a sort of protg. Freud soon became a father figure to Jung. In cardinal of the correspondences, Freud referred to Jun g as, The Joshua to my Moses, fated to enter the Promised Land which I myself volition non live to see. Again and again he speaks of Jung as his heir, once as my successor and crown prince, and even as spirit of my spirit.In 1908, Jung became editor program of the sensitively baseed Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psycho thoroughfareological Research. The subsequent year, Jung and Freud traveled to the U.S., introducing psychoanalysis by means of their Fordham Lectures.They dog-tired some 3 months touring America. This was the some evoke meter of their fellowship. They had several conversations , conversations which brought forth ideological differences between the two.Jungs major dissimilitude with Freud stalked from their conflicting concepts of the unconscious mind(p)(p). Jung saw Freuds possibleness of the unconscious as liberalist and pointlessly negative. According to Jung, Freud considered the unconscious solely as a store of sub collectabled emotions and desires. At the like while Jung did agree with Freuds model of the unconscious, as Jung c on the wholeed the personal unconscious, just he also projected the existence of removed recentlyer form of the unconscious, which underlies the personal one. He c whollyed it the embodied unconscious where the archetypes themselves resided.This blood and collaboration began to deteriorate as the years went on. While Freud purview of Jung as the intimately innovative person and his successor, he was unhappy with Jungs difference with some of the rudimentary doctrine of Freudian theory. For example, Jung believed that Freud was too foc employ on sexuality as a motivating force. He also snarl that Freuds concept of the unconscious was limited and overly negative. Jung argued that the unconscious could also be a antecedent of creativity.Carl also disagreed with Freuds consume that all multifactoriales come from sexual trauma, because he had get laid with psychological problem that had different origins. Freud also did not agree with Carls views nigh spiritualism and parapsychology.According to Jung, the first real crisis in their friendship came in spring 1909. Jung visited Freud in Vienna and asked his opinion on precognition and parapsychology. alone Freud was too selfish and discarded this matter in a fashion that upset Jung. Jung speaks around a strange thing which happened at the comparable time. As Freud was leaving, Jung heard a in truth loud cracking which came from the bookcase conterminous to them, this he spoke of as an example of paranormal phenomenon, which was discarded by Freud immediately. Immediately Jung predicted that in a moment there would be some other loud noise, and yes thence there came a flake loud crack from the bookcase. Freud was puzzled scarcely this incident hoisted his mistrust towards Jung.The next crisis in their friendship came in 1910, when Freud was straining to make his sexual theory a law of belief against occultism. According to Carl Jung, this had nothing to do with scientific judgment, but notwithstanding with Freuds ambition and past.Despite their difference they go along to endure together until 1912. It is believed that the locomote in their friendship came by Jungs publication of Symbols of Transformation, which is full of mythological symbols.Freud dismiss Jungs interest in religious belief and myths as being unscientific. This rejection embittered Jung toward his mentor. Carl, for reasons not cognise instigated a rumor that a romantic proportionship may kick in actual between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, who had moved into Freuds apartment. He suggested that the closeness resulted in a pregnancy and a subsequent abortion for Miss Bernays. Freud met Jungs antagonism with change magnitude detachment. Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying a visit to Jung in nearby Zrich. Jung felt up severely slighted by this inci dent, which he referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. The net letter scripted from Sigmund Freud to Carl Jung read, Your allegation that I treat my followers as patients is demonstrably untrue. . . . It is a convention among us analysts that none of us shoot feel ashamed of his own neurosis. But one meaning Jung who while behaving abnormally keeps shouting that he is normal gives ground for the suspicion that he lacks brainstorm into his illness. Accordingly, I propose that we abandon our personal relations entirely.-Sigmund Freud, 1912In 1912, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung met in Munich among prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals.Freud was overcome by a fast fainting spell At Jungs talk about his new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV. It is said that Jung picked-up Freud, and carried him to a nearby couch. Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September of 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology. This talk introduced of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jungs act upon from Freuds for the next half centuryAfter FreudParting with Freud left Jung shattered to a great extent, he resigned from the International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1914. The emulation growing between the two was cl betimes visible in the letter they exchanged. At one point, Jung sarcastically wrote, your technique of treating your pupils like patients is a blunder. In that way you produce either slavish sons or impudent puppies I am objective enough to see through your little subterfuge (McGuire, 1974).Jung soon began an intensified self-analysis (an examination of oneself) in order to break in the mysteries of the unconscious psyche. From 1913 to 1921 Jung published three important papers Two Essays on Analytical psychological science (1916, 1917) and Psychological Types (1921). The Two Es says provided the basic nouss from which his later work was developed. He described his research on psychological typology (the classification of personalities by star their similarities and differences)-that there are two basic classifications, or two types of personalities, in the way they relate to the cosmos introversion and extroversion. Introversion, in which one has the characteristic of being self-involved, withdrawn, occupied with ones inner world. Extroversion, in which one relates to the world through social involvement and has interests outside of oneself and is extrovertive. He expressed the idea that it is the personal equation which, often unconsciously but in engagement with ones own typology, influences how an individual observes and interacts with their world.Jungs main contribution was his disco actually that mans fantasy flavor has a certain structure. There must be subtle dynamic centers in the unconscious which control natural behavior and free imaginat ion. These realize to form Jungs concept of archetypes. An individual will day woolgather on impulse, and these pipe envisages will restrain a theme or story similar to a fairy tale, or a myth, from a time long past, that are unknown to the person dreaming. To Jung this meant that archetypal symptoms (memories of experiences of people from the past that are accede in every persons unconscious mind) belong to human beings of all ages and from all times they are the expression of a collective body of mans basic psychic nature. M whatever(prenominal) mental case sufferings save happened due to a opinion of self-estrangement (the alienation of oneself from oneself) because of mans creation of a logical framework and control of his dependence on these memories of experiences that exist in the unconscious.His first achievement was to differentiate two classes of people according to attitude types extraverted (outward-looking) and introverted (inward-looking). Later he differenti ated four functions of the mind-thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition-one or more of which predominate in any given person. Results of this exact were embodied in Psychologische Typen (1921 Psychological Types, 1923).As a boy Jung had some weird powerful fantasies or dreams that had developed in intensity through the years. After his break with Freud, during self analysis he deliberately allowed this aspect of himself to function again and studied the experience and responses scientifically by keeping detailed notes of the same. He later developed the theory that these experiences came from an area of the mind that he called the collective unconscious, which he held was shared by everyone. This much-contested conception was combined with a theory of archetypes that Jung held as fundamental to the study of the psychology of religion. In Jungs terms, archetypes are senseive patterns, have a commonplaceplace character, and are expressed in behaviour and images.In order to stu dy in depth the archetypal patterns and processes, Jung visited so-called primitive tribes. He lived among the Pueblo Indians of immature Mexico and Arizona in 1924 and 1925 and among the inhabitants of Mt. Elgon in Kenya during 1925 and 1926. He later visited Egypt and India. To Jung, the religious symbols and phenomenology (a arrangement of beliefs developed by poring over peoples understanding and awareness of themselves) of Buddhism and Hinduism and the t individuallyings of Zen Buddhism and Confucianism all distinguished with respect to a mans experience to find a path to his inner world, a world which was badly neglected by western sandwich civilization. Jung also searched for traditions in Western culture, which made up for its one-sided outgoing development toward reason and technology. He found these traditions in Gnosticism (belief that personal liberty comes through spiritual link and understanding), Christian mysticism (the belief that instinct and spiritual feeli ng are the ways to find God), and, above all, occultism (knowledge or use of supernatural powers). Some of his major kit and caboodle are deep and clear psychological interpretations of alchemical (the ability and power to make common things special) writings, showing their living signifi croupce for understanding dreams and the hidden theme of neurotic and mental disorders.Inner development and growth of personalityJung was keen on the detailing of the stages of inner development and of the growth of the personality, which he termed the process of individuation. He said that its a unshakable impulse from the unconscious which guides the individual toward its most complete ridiculousness. This description was the result of a lifelong task of tally and error and recognizing and connecting the limit of the unconscious. It consists in an ever-increasing self-knowledge and in becoming what you are.Character of his mental hygieneJung devoted the rest of his life to developing his i deas, oddly those on the relation between psychology and religion. In his view, obscure and often neglected texts of writers in the past shed unexpected light not only on Jungs own dreams and fantasies but also on those of his patients he thought it requirement for the successful practice of their art that psychotherapists capture familiar with writings of the aged masters.Besides the development of new psychotherapeutic methods that derived from his own experience and the theories developed from them, Jung gave fresh importance to the so-called Hermetic tradition. He conceived that the Christian religion was part of a historic process necessary for the development of consciousness, and he also thought that the heretical movements, starting with Gnosticism and ending in alchemy, were manifestations of unconscious archetypal elements not adequately expressed in the mainstream forms of Christianity. He was oddly impressed with his finding that alchemical-like symbols could be fou nd frequently in recent dreams and fantasies, and he thought that alchemists had constructed a kind of textbook of the collective unconscious. He expounded on this in 4 out of the 18 volumes that make up his Collected Works.His historical studies aided him in pioneering the psychotherapy of the middle-aged and elderly, especially those who felt their lives had lost meaning. He helped them to appreciate the place of their lives in the period of history. Most of these patients had lost their religious belief Jung found that if they could discover their own myth as expressed in dream and imagination they would become more complete personalities. He called this process individuation.In later years he became professor of psychology at the Federal Polytechnical University in Zrich (1933-41) and professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel (1943). His personal experience, his continued psychotherapeutic practice, and his wide knowledge of history placed him in a unique pro spect to comment on current events. As early as 1918 he had begun to think that Germany held a special position in Europe the Nazi revolution was, therefore, highly signifi corporationt for him, and he delivered a number of hotly contested views that led to his being wrongly mark as a Nazi sympathizer. Jung lived to the age of 85.The authoritative English collection of all Jungs published writings is Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, and Gerhard Adler (eds.), The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, trans. by R.F.C. Hull, 20 vol., 2nd ed. (1966-79). Jungs The psychological science of the Unconscious waits in revised form as Symbols of Transformation in the Collected Works. His other major individual publications involve ber die Psychologie der Dementia Praecox (1907 The Psychology of Dementia Praecox) Versuch(prenominal) einer Darstellung der psychoanalytischen Theorie (1913 The Theory of Psychoanalysis) Collected papers on Analytical Psychology (1916) Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1928) Das Geheimnis der goldenen Blte (1929 The Secret of the Golden Flower) Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933), a collection of essays covering topics from dream analysis and literature to the psychology of religion Psychology and Religion (1938) Psychologie und Alchemie (1944 Psychology and Alchemy) and Aion Untersuchungen zur Symbolgeschichte (1951 Aion Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self). Jungs Erinnerungen, Trume, Gedanken (1962 Memories, Dreams, Reflections) is fascinating semiautobiographical reading, partly written by Jung himself and partly put down by his secretary.In 2009 the Red Book, a manuscript that Jung wrote during the years 1914-30, was published. It was, by Jungs own account, a record of his confrontation with the unconscious. Containing both his account of his imaginings, fantasies, and induce hallucinations and his own colour illustrations, The Red Book also includes an extensive intro and a translation into English.Jung he had to give his psych ological practice, writings and explorations up in 1944 due to a severe watch attack.Carl Jungs near-death experienceIn a hospital in Switzerland in 1944, the world-renowned psychiatrist Carl G. Jung, had a heart attack and then a near-death experience. His vivid encounter with the light, plus the intensely meaningful insights led Jung to conclude that his experience came from something real and eternal. Jungs experience is unique in that he saw the Earth from a vantage point of about a thousand miles above it. His incredibly accurate view of the Earth from outer space was described about two decades in the lead astronauts in space first described it. Subsequently, as he reflected on life after death, Jung recalled the meditating Hindu from his near-death experience and read it as a parable of the archetypal Higher Self, the God-image at bottom. Carl Jung, who founded analytical psychology, centered on the archetypes of the collective unconscious. The following is an excerpt from his autobiography entitled Memories, Dreams, Reflections describing his near-death experienceI felt violent resistance to my doctor because he had brought me bet on to life.At the same time, I was worried about him. His life is in danger, for heavens sake He has appeared to me in his primal form When anybody attains this form it means he is going to die, for already he belongs to the greater company. Suddenly the terrifying thought came to me that the doctor would have to die in my stead. I tried my best to talk to him about it, but he did not understand me. hence I became angry with him.In actual fact I was his last patient.On April 4, 1944 I still remember the exact date I was allowed to sit up on the edge of my bed for the first time since the beginning of my illness, and on this same day the doctor took to his bed and did not leave it again.I heard that he was having intermittent attacks of fever.Soon afterwards he died of septicernia. He was a good doctor there was somet hing of the star about him. Otherwise he would not have appeared to me as an shape of the temporal embodiment of the primal form.Women in Jungs lifeWhile change of location to the United States together in 1909, Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud passed the time by interpreting from each one others dreams. Fifty years later in Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Jung wrote about a dream he believed Freud was unable to accurately interpret. In the dream, Jung was living on the second floor of a two-story dwelling when he decided to explore the contents of the ground floor. On that level all the furniture and decorations were old, dating perhaps to the 15th or 16th century. After exploring that floor, Jung set about to explore the whole house. He found a stone stairway leading to the cellar where he discovered artifacts that dated to ancient Roman times. locomote even deeper, he came upon a dusty cave with scattered bones, low-spirited pottery, and two human skulls. He then awoke.Jung la ter accepted this dream as evidence for different levels of the psyche. The upper floor had an inhabited air and represented consciousness, the top grade of the psyche. The ground floor was the first layer of the unconscious-old but not as alien or ancient as the Roman artifacts in the cellar, which symbolized a deeper layer of the personal unconscious. In the cave, Jung discovered remains of a primitive culture, that is, the world of the primitive man within myself-a world which sack scarcely be reached or illuminated by consciousness (Jung, 1961, p. 160). After Jung described the dream, Freud became interested in the two skulls in the cave, but not as collective unconscious material. Instead, he insisted that Jung join them to some wish. Who did Jung wish dead? Not yet completely swear his own judgment, Jung answered, My married woman and my sister-in-law-after all, I had to name someone whose death was outlay the wishingI was newly marital at the time and knew absolutely we ll that there was nothing within myself which pointed to such wishes (Jung, 1961, pp. 159-160).Although Jungs interpretation of this dream may be more accurate than Freuds, it is quite possible that Jung did indeed wish for the death of his wife. At that time (1909), Jung was not newly married but had been married for nearly 7 years, and for the past 5 of those years he was deeply involved in a sexual relationship with a former patient named Sabina Spielrein. Frank McLynn (1996) has alleged that Jung was a disreputable womanizer who frequently had affairs with his patients and former patients. He exacted that Jungs mother complex caused him to harbor animosity toward his wife while destining him to a life of promiscuity. McLynn, who is super antagonistic toward Jung, may have exaggerated Jungs promiscuity, but little disbelieve exists that Jung had several extramarital affairs. In a letter to Freud dated January 30, 1910, Jung wrote The requirement for a good marriage, it seems to me, is the license to be unfaithful (McGuire, 1974, p. 289).Spielrein had begun her association with Jung as his patient, but the relationship soon turned into a sexual one. In spite of this sexual relationship, Jung continued to analyze Spielrein and eventually conducted a discipline analysis that enabled her to become a psychoanalyst. John Kerr (1993) has argued effectively that the feminine utter that spoke to Jung in the form of his anima was that of Spielrein. In Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Jung (1961) wrote that he recognized the character as that of a patient, a talented psychopath who had a strong transference to me (p. 185). If Spielrein had a strong transference to Jung, then he reciprocated with a strong countertransference to her.Spielrein may have been the first female patient that Jung took as a lover, but she was not the last. The most visible of all Jungs affairs was with Antonia (Toni) Wolff, a dark-eyed beauty who first met Jung in 1910 when she was 22 y ears old. uniform Sabina Spielrein, Wolff began her association with Jung as a patient, became his lover, received a training analysis, and became an analyst. When Jung descended into the depths of his unconscious after his break with Freud, it was Toni Wolff, not Emma Jung, who helped him retain his sanity and eventually issue from that dangerous journey. Jung became so deeply dependent on Wolff that he pressured his wife to allow him to openly carry on his affair with Toni. Emma reluctantly and deplorably agreed. McLynn paints a picture of Emma, Carl, and Toni in a menage trois, but such was not the case. Alan Elmss (1994) description of this relationship is probably more accurate. According to Elms, Jung spent Wednesday evenings with Toni, and Toni cane to the Jung household for Sunday dinner with Carl, Emma, and the children, who were no more successful than their mother over this arrangement.Jung and Wolff continued their affair for at least 2 decades and made no attempt t o hide the relationship. Nevertheless, the name Toni Wolff does not appear in Jungs autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Elms discovered that Jung had written a whole chapter on Toni Wolff, a chapter that was never published. The absence of Tonis name in Jungs autobiography is probably due to the hatred of Jungs children for Wolff. They remembered when she had carried on openly with their father, and they harbored some lifelong resentment toward her. As adults with some veto power over what appeared in their fathers posthumously published autobiography, they were not in a generous mood to perpetuate knowledge of the affair.By age 60, Toni Wolff had developed arthritis and had lost most of her physical attractiveness. threesome years later, she died, no longer Jungs friend or companion. Jung did not issuance in the funeral of the woman who served him as a second wife and rescued him from a severe midlife crisis.One final, rather unsavory note on Jungs relationships with w omen is his claim that Freud had had an affair with his own sister-in-law Minna Bernays. In 1957, Jung told John Billinsky, an American psychologist, that at the first meeting between Jung and Freud in Vienna in 1907, Minna Bernays pulled Jung forth and confessed that she was having an affair with Freud. According to Billinsky (1969), Jung told himSoon I met Freuds wifes younger sister. She was very good-looking and she not only knew enough about psychoanalysis but also about everything that Freud was doing. When, a few days later, I was visiting Freuds laboratory, Freuds sister-in-law asked if she could talk with me. She was very much bothered by her relationship with Freud and felt guilty about it. From her I learned that Freud was in love with her and that their relationship was indeed very intimate. It was a shocking discovery to me, and even now I can recall the agony I felt at the time. (p. 42)Since Billinskys article appeared, scholars have debated the validity of Jungs clai ms. Other than Jungs story, little evidence exists that Freud was romantically linked to Minna Bernays-or any woman other than his wife. Although Jungs mind remained clear until his death in 1961, his depot of Minnas confession was 50 years old. Also, Jung described Minna as very good-looking. Beauty, of course, is subjective, but few people would view photographs of Minna Bernays and pronounce her as very good-looking. At almost all stages of her life, she was quite plain-looking and not nearly as fine as her sister Martha Bernays Freud. In addition, it does not seem likely that Minna Bernays, having known Jung for only a very short period of time, would have called him aside and confessed having an affair with Freud. Perhaps Jungs claim that Freud had a sexual relationship with Minna tells us more about Carl Jung than it does about either Sigmund Freud or Minna Bernays.Professional AccomplishmentsIn 1957, Jung wrote The Undiscovered Self (1957), which took on a nostalgic tone in reflection of his previous works and theories. In this relatively short book, Jung considers mans position in relation to the state, church, himself and the meanings of each of those relations. Backed with little to no say empirical evidence, Jung wrote eloquently about philosophical matters in psychological terms. This work was a typical example of how Jung tended to relate all matters to a fistful of topics, such as religion, state, and so on.One of Jungs more creative works was On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry (1978). He started this scrap by noting the difference between the simple creation of art and its essence. Anyone can simply put ink on paper or canvas, but an artist is liven upd. Again, he related art to religion as they were both psychic phenomena and occur on different levels within different people. artistry came from two main places, the individual creating the art with all of his or her expectation, intentions, faults, etc, and what he called the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious was like a living entity which used man as a medium to create. It was also explained as a river of timeless thoughts common to all people. The collective unconscious helped regulate cultures and helped inspire individuals. Inspired art can trigger a certain understanding between people across cultures, time, gender and age. There may be something common, that everyone can relate to. According to Jung, this was the essence of art.In his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which was published after his death, Jung wrote about his near-death experience. He recalled seeing the earth from outer space, noting each main body of land and ocean. He then came across a Hindu sitting and waiting for him in front of a temple he had seen in his life. The entire body of his works could be remembered so that he could view his accomplishments. He had feelings of being care-free and peaceful. Jung described the feeling as a middle of so mething without a beginning or end. The answers, it seemed, would be found in the temple. But before he could enter, his attention was shifted to the doctors bringing him back to life. That was the end of his vision.Jung Love Sabina Spielrein, a forgotten pioneer of psychoanalysisSabina Spielrein was an 18yr old who was brought in as a patient of Jung. Just before his association with Freud. Hospital records show that Sabina laughs and cries in a strangely mixed, compulsive manner. flock of tics she rotates her head jerkily, sticks out her tongue, twitches her legs Cannot stand people or noise. The notes are written by a newly qualified Dr Jung. He diagnosed her hysteric.Jung was enthusiastic to take on this case as it would help him discover the mysteries of the brain and the unconscious which affected the conscious mind and altered human behavior. Jung decided to try out a new technique on her, one hed read about in a book by Sigmund Freud. This was psychoanalysis, and the techn ique was the talk of the town technique.Jung was principally keen on the word-association experiment a series of hit-or-miss words were fired at the patient, who had to respond with the first thing that came to mind. Jung discover that mentions of the girls father create grimaces and gestures of abhorrence.Gradually Jung discovered that Sabinas , has the odd habit of get everything she sees. She then has to borrow from relatives and there is constant anxiety that the father top executive find out about this. Also that her mother competed with her adolescent young lady for the attentions of various men. Spielreins father, meanwhile insults and tyrannises the family, frequently going wild and threatening suicide. Spielrein is forever afraid that he will kill himself.Moreover, he frequently drum Sabina on her bare buttocks in a special way away from the family. Sabina, the eldest of five terrorized children (the youngest died of typhoid aged six), eventually confessed to Jung that she felt sexual excitement when her father beat her. Jung also came across a fact that Spielreins mother had raised Sabina in complete sexual ignorance, which explains her lost(p) reaction to these oddly intimate episodes with her father. Either way, she came to conflate suffering both physical and emotional with love.Jung achieved success with Spielrein within the first year with his new technique. Sabina was cured to such an extent that Sabina started living independently in Zurich and studying medicine at the university. Jung later claimed (in a letter to Freud, with whom hed started corresponding during Spielreins treatment) that he maintained contact with her only because he feared a relapse. But Sabina did not feel so in 1906 she wrote to him I love you too much,. A year later Jung rather lewdly told Freud, she admits that her greatest wish is to have a child by me. For that purpose I would naturally have to let the bird out first.Its clear from Jungs letters that they had an intimate relation and they were meeting every few days, in her flat so you are less inhibited or taking boat rides so we can be alone. In 1908, when she went to Russia for the summer, Jung wrote, I realise how much more affiliated I am to you than I ever thought. The intense relation was carried on for five years.Once Spielreins mother received an anonymous letter (probably from Jungs wife), which provoked her to write to Jung asking him not to ruin the girl he had saved. His suffice is remarkably coldhearted You do understand that a man and a girl cannot possibly continue indefinitely to have friendly relations with one another without the likelihood that something more may enter the relationship.Until then, Jung and Spielreins meetings had been social. If she wanted him to remain strictly professional, he suggested, she should resume paying him My fee is 10 francs per consultation.The rumour was widespread enough to reach Freud in Vienna. Jung, terrified for his reputa tion, wrote to him that a woman patient had kicked up a vile scandal. He went on to say that he offered her friendship only to realise she was of course systematically planning my seduction.He admitted, however that, during the whole business Grosss notions he was referring to Otto Gross, an
Challenges Faced by Multinational CorporationsMultinational Corporation (MNC) is maven of type of potential firm in the world nowadays. A pile fire be categorized as MNC if there are 20% to 50% or more of its net reach from directs investment in atomic number 53 or more in contrary countries. (Iamsam, n.d). http//hubpages.com/hub/Multinational-Corporations-MNCsMNC are managed from one home country. With well- manage structure and due work firm heartfelt performance, it able to expand its products and services to exotic country. The harvest-time of planetary corporations is thrifty by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). When logical argument firm comprise an investment in a second nation, the investment is counted as decompose of the outward direct investment from the source country. FDI is an investment in foreign firms where the foreign investor owns at least ten percent of the ordinary dowerys.1.2. 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The Coca-Cola Company traces it s beginning to 1886, when an Atlanta p harmacist, Dr. John Pemberton, began to produce Coca-Cola syrup for sale in fountain drinks. However the bottling wrinkle began in 1899 when two Chattanooga businessmen, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, secured the exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca-Cola for approximately of the United States from The Coca-Cola Company. The Coca-Cola bottling system continued to operate as independent, local businesses until the early on 1980s when bottling franchises began to consolidate. In 1986, The Coca-Cola Company merged two large self-possession groups which are John T. Lupton franchises and BCI Holding Corporations bottling holdings to form Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc.In December 1991, a merger between Coca-Cola Enterprises and the Johnston Coca-Cola Bottling Group, Inc. (Johnston) created a larger, stronger Company, again helping accelerate bottler consolidation. As part of the merger, the senior management team of Johnston assumed responsibility for managing the Company, and began a dramatic, successful restructuring in 1992.1.3. Management StructureTo create an effective organisational structure is one of the important tasks for top managers. In the International breakdown structure, the abroad branch of the company is the attachment of the parent company. The international unit of measurement is responsible for controlling all of the international activities of the company. The piece can be based on geography, product or function. There is an international division head which is responsible for controlling all of the activities of these units. This division structure allows the multinational companies to freely explore resources internationally. Whenever there are changes in internal business environment, the companies which have this structure lowgo some changes.Coca-Cola Company as the biggest non-alcoholic beverage concentrates which also a multinational company has to handles the enormous capacity of its business by international division structure. Coca-Cola is geographicly operating segments the five groups are North America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Eurasia and Middle East and finally Latin America. These five groups can explore their own ideas as to upturn the performance and continue success of Coca-Cola.2. globalisationThe process of globalization has impacted on the world s business operation which is for the most part driven by the development of MNCs. According Macmillan Dictionary, term of globalization defines as concept a single economy and floriculture are developed as a result of advance in technology which easier the communications between two corporation and globalization mostly influence by multinational companies toward economic, financial, trade and communication. Besides, the United Development plan (1999) announces globalization is the most important integration of economy, governmental and cultural phenomenon crossways nation frontiers. (cited in Kiggundu 2002).Our world is increasingly bec oming global, not wholly has increased in interconnected of countries in the area of economics and political but also culture Coca-Cola is a good example of a business which truly international in scope. Coca-Cola reported that 67% of its core net income from non- U.S. source.Various tactics used to expand globallyBy setting up facilities and developing a global market which gives foreign markets easier access to our goods.Establishing transnational corporations to reduce production costs, and gives the companies cheaper labor.Competition-based pricingProduct stigmatization and positioningThe idea of globalization can be simplified by identifying several key characteristicImproved technology in transit and telecommunicationsMovement of people and capitalDiffusion of knowledgeNon-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Multinational CorporationsImpacts of globalisation1.) Establishment of international alliancesThe establishment alliances or coalitions which link firms of the same attention based in different countries. MNCs commonly engage in international alliances such as correlative run a risks and licensing agreements with foreign firms. Coca-Cola formed global occasion venture with many industries to strengthen its company buy instituteing new products. These are the few joint ventures for Coco-Cola which doing well and earned huge profit on it.a. Coca-Cola joint venture buys Filipino drink companySan Miguel, the Philippine food and beverage company, and its joint-venture partner Coca-Cola agreed yesterday to pay 14 billion pesos ($269 million) for the Philippines second-largest soft drink company, public. The purchase, which defeated a bid by PepsiCo, will give the joint venture, Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, a 90 percent share of the Philippines $1-billion-a-year soft drink market. The deal was approved when Cosmoss majority owner, the RMF Corporation, agreed to acquiesce a lower offer after San Miguel discovered that some Cosmos equipment w as below Coca-Colas standards. Wayne Arnold (NYT)b. Joint venture between Coca-Cola and Nestle to tap rapidly growing beverage segmentsCoca-Cola and Nestle Refreshments (CCNR) is their highly successful joint venture formed on 1991 which operates directly in 24 countries and enjoys a strong position in the ready-to-drink tea category. On 30Jan2001, CCNR rename as deglutition Partners Worldwide (BPW) function as an entrepreneurial unit dedicated to tapping the growth potential of emerging beverage segments, actively expand into new beverage particularly ready-to-drink coffee, teas and beverages with a healthful positioning. BPW also focus on expanding its geographical with existing products include Nestea and Nescafe and new products inclusive of Tian Yu Di tea and Yang Guag tea businesses labor by Coca-Cola.c. Joint venture of Coca-Cola Company and Illycaffe SpaThey introducing three exchange premium ready-to-drink (RTD) espresso-based coffee products. The products areCaffe full- bodied character, real Italian chilled caffe. First ready-to-drink coffee to offer black (no milk) espresso-based coffee.Cappucino intense uplifting aromas of illy espresso, blended with milk and gentle cacao.Latte Macchiato smooth fresh illy espresso experience, swirled with milk.The product will be useable in stylish premium can to attract the consumer. The RTD first launch in 10 European countries including Austria, Croatia, Greece and the Ukraine as the firm aim of their joint venture.After 1 month, the additional countries in Asia, North America, Eurasia and the Pacific as the expansion of the sales and will be delivered through the Cola-Cola system. The highly economic RTD coffee category globally is valued at just under $16 billion and has experienced several years of growth that is evaluate to continue. Globally (excluding Japan), the ready-to-drink coffee category has grown at an average rate of 10.1 percent over the past five years.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
price reduction of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41Results and DiscussionsThe present study included the synthesis of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and its accommodation by impregnation of different coats on the mesoporous to enhance the photocatalytic bodily process of coats i.e Cu/MCM-41, Fe/MCM-41, CeO2/MCM-41.FTIR analysis of accelerator pedalMCM-41 has the ability to impregnate numerous surfaces on its rise. MCM-41 was modified with metal salts in order to dope the metals on the surface of mesoporous material was characterized by FTIR analysis. The FT-IR spectra furnished the information about the incorporation of metals on the surface of MCM-41. The FT-IR spectra of synthesized material in the region of 4000 400 cm-1 in infection mode using platinium ATR, a single reflection sampling staff spectrophotometr, and shown in Fig. 5. The uncalcined MCM41 and calcined MCM41 spectra (Fig. 5A. a, b) show intense band at wavenumber 1100 and 802 cm-1 which accounts for the a stellate and sy mmetric stretching of the Si-O-Si bonds, one by one.i The bands at 970 cm-1 and 460 cm-1 was assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of surface Si-O- groups respectively.ii The penetrating bloom of youths at 2864.72cm-1 and 2922.14 cm-1 were receivable to the presence of surfactant before calcinations of MCM-41.iii For calcined MCM41, the bands at 2852 cm-1 and 2921 cm-1 identical to the long chain of alkyl group of the surfactant molecules were disappe bed after calcination shows the totally removal of surfactants molecules. The inequalitys of the intensities of the peaks in the FT-IR spectra of MCM-41 and MCM-41/ CeO2, are abserved which resulted from the doping of CeO2. A strong absorption peak at 1,632 cm1 is observed in the spectra of MCM-41/CeO2, and it indicates the formation of Ce-O-Ce.iv some copper and iron also addTGA analysis of MCM-41XRD analysis of MCM-41Photocatalytic studies by using the metal dopped MCM-41The metal dopped MCM-41 was analyse for the photocatalytic humiliation of commonly utilise pharmaceuticals including salts of diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory do drugs (NAID)) and atorvastatin (antihyper lipoproteinemic drug). For this purpose the solutions od these drugs were wide-awake and degradation potential of metal dopped mesoporous silicate was studied by optimizing various parameters i.e the meat of catalyst, the pH, the light, subst swan ingress, metal loading on MCM-41.Effect of pHThe fundamental interaction between the pharmacy and metal dopped mesoporous are dependent on the pH of the solution therefore the optimization of pH is important to achieve upper limit degradation efficiency. During the present study, the degradation process was optimized by changing the pH from 3.5 to 10.5 over 10 wt% M/MCM-41(M= Cu, Fe, Ce) with 1 g l_1 of 0.114 mM drug solution. The pH of the pharmaceutic solution is adjusted with 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M NaOH. The results obtained are shown in Fig. 3d. At acidic pH, the rate of degradation is faster as compared to high and neutral pH. The results clearly show that acidic pH is idealistic for the degradation of the pharmaceutics.Effect of light intensity on degradation of pharmaceuticThe photolysis of pharmaceutic was studied under UV irradiation and dark. The log born(p) decay curves (In Ct/Co) of pharmaceutic versus irradiation time were displayed in (Fig. 3-5). The selective information for dark control samples were also elaborated in Fig. 6. Photodegradation of diclofenac sodium and atorvastatin under UV light in distilled water and methanol respectively were determined during the summer season (March-september) as displayed in Fig.3. The determined half(prenominal) life of 50 ppm diclofenac sodium in distilled water under UV light was 2.5h and in dark it was observed as 3 h.The rate of reaction varied from 2.810-3 to 2.310-3 when pharmaceutic was shifted from UV light to dark.Effect of metal loading on MCM-41The effect of metal loading over MCM-41 on the photocatalytic activity is investigated and the results are shown in Fig. 2a. The degradation studies are carried out with summation of metal (wt%)5, 10 and 15 using 1 g l_1 of catalyst amount in 50 ml pharmaceutics solution. It is observed that 510 wt% increase in metal loadings, the photocatalytic activity increases and there is not much degradation rate at higher loadings. Among all the catalysts, 10 wt% M/MCM- 41 (M= Cu, Fe and Ce) showed most efficient photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutics i.e., complete degradation within 90 min. The loss in the activity with increase in metal percent loading is due to the unneeded amount of metal oxide dispersed over MCM-41 that blocks the mesopores results a decrease in adsorption capacity. The turbidity of the solution also blocks acuteness of light into the solution. Thus, the metal loading over the support clearly shows that one has to optimize the metal content, simultaneously retaining the active sites for adsorp tion in order to achieve the effectual synergism.Effect of catalyst amountTo optimize the amount of catalyst required for effective pharmaceutic photocatalytic degradation, different catalyst amounts (0.251.5 g l_1) are studied with 10 wt% M/MCM-41 and the results are shown in Fig. 3a. It is observed that 1.0 g l_1 is launch to be the optimum. By increasing 0.25 1.0 g l_1, the photocatalytic activity is increased and at higher contents the activity is not beneficial. This may be due to the fact that higher amount of the catalyst is obstructing the path of light penetration into the solution (i.e., scattering of light) thus reducing the OH radicals formation.Effect of substrate concentrationThe effect of 0.094, 0.1571 and 0.2829 mM pharmaceutics concentrations are performed over 10 wt% M/MCM-41 catalyst with 1 g l_1 amount for degradation. From Fig. 3b, it is observed that at dismount concentrations, the adsorption is more compared to higher concentrations. There is a slight diff erence in degradation at 0.094, 0.1571 mM concentrations in comparison to 0.2829 mM. Also, it is admit that the degradation is solely depends on the OH radical formation. The production of OH radicals is not sufficient in comparison to the amount of pharmaceutic adsorbed on the surface of the photocatalyst at higher concentrations. In view of this it suggests that, there should be equilibrium between adsorption of reactant molecules and OH radicals generated from the active sites. The 0.1571 mM concentration of pharmaceutic is arrange to be optimum for 10 wt% M/MCM-41 catalyst using 1 g l_1 amount. The experimental kinetic data are presented in Fig. 3c (inset) and in gameboard 1, along with time required for 50% degradation (t1/2) for each of the fitted lines. The degradation rate of pharmaceutic is decreased while increasing the concentration.The rate eonian k decreases with increase in initial concentration of drug. The effect of initial concentration of pharmaceutic on the ph otocatalytic degradation rate is described by pseudo-first order kinetics. The apparent rate constant for 0.114 mM IPU over 10 wt% TiO2/Al-MCM- 41 catalyst is 0.072 min_1 (R2 = 0.994). In the present investigation, 0.1571 mM concentration is found to be the optimum for degradation studies.iE.M. Flanigen, H. Khatami, H.A. Szymanski, (1971), Infrared structural studies of zeolite frameworks. In E.M. Flanigen, L.B. moxie (Eds.). Molecular Sieve Zeolites. ACS Adv. Chem. Ser., 101 pp 201-227.iiE.M. Flanigen, H. Khatami, H.A. Szymanski, (1971), Infrared structural studies of zeolite frameworks. In E.M. Flanigen, L.B. mother wit (Eds.). Molecular Sieve Zeolites. ACS Adv. Chem. Ser., 101 pp 201-227.iii Taib, I.N., Endud, S., Katun, M.N Functionalization of mesoporous Si-MCM-41 by grafting with trimethylchlorosilane, International ledger of chemistry, 3 3(2011).iv Song, X, Qu, P, Jiang, N, Yang, H, Qiu, G Synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 materials assembled with CeO2 nanoparticles . Coll. Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 313314, 193196 (2008)
Friday, March 29, 2019
Development Of Iago In Othello side of meat Literature EssayIago is hotshot of the most interesting and deeply real characters in the tragedy Othello by William Shakespe are. Using carefully thought- stunned actions and words, Iago manipulates others to do things in a way that helps him and gets him to reach his aspirations. He is the driving force in this play, pushing Othello and every other character towards the tragic ending.Its first observ commensurate that Iago is just your normal run of the mill villain but he is far to a greater extent than that. Shakespeare has decided to make Iago amoral which adds a new reason to character and makes his actions so far more wicked then they already were. Iago is a very smart character and this only aids him in his villainous ploy. Iago now starts revealing his plot to take voltaic pile Othello. Being the goodly character he is, Iago plays on Roderigos feelings for Desdemona and steals money from him.Thus do I ever make my fool my purse. For I mine own gained noesis should profane if I would time expend with such a brush up but for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor, and it is thought abroad that twixt my sheets hes through my office. I know not if t be true, but I, for undefi guide suspicion in that kind, bequeath do as if for surety. He holds me vigorousIago come overs it as wasted time and knowledge if he didnt play on Roderigo and get money from him or even use him against Othello. Iago simply sees Roderigo as just being desposable and easy to toy with just a stepping treasure down his path of greed. In this quote he withal explains explains one of the major reasons why he wants the ultimate f solely(a) of Othello and how he provide manipulate Othello into believing that Cassio has had an affair with Desdemona.A big with being intelligent Iago is also a quick thinker and is able to tackle just just about any situation that you may throw at him. We first see this when Roderigo is livid once he finds out Iagos scheme but Iago is able to make it seem a rectify and calm Roderigo down. He took Roderigos individual retirement account and twisted it into a way to better along his plan. If Roderigo is blinded by anger then it wont be hard for Iago to make him rec all told anything.Iagos long term goal is to make Othello look bad and what better way to do that then to make him think his wife is rig on him?He takes her by the palm. Ay, well said, whisper With as teeny-weeny a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. Ay, smile upon her, do, I will gyve thee in thine own courtship. You say true, tis so, indeed. If such tricks as these strip you out of your lieutenantryBy simply twisting around normal friendly actions he can make anything seem worse and that is just what he does with Cassio and Desdemonas relationship. Cassio and Desdemona are nothing more then simple friends but when Iago sees them interacting in a light more then a friendly way he thinks of a plan to make Othello believe that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio.None of this would be possible if Iago didnt talk in such natural and vindictive speech. Iago talks in a lot of prose instead verse and that makes him a little easier to understand and get his point across. He also interacts as if he is genuinely trying to help Othello but in all human race he is only dowry himself and praying that everyone else will fail. These interactions with other characters have led him to be known as Honest Iago even though he has already planted the seed of tragedy in Othellos understanding. Iago is a operate of abusing peoples trust to gain more power and further the completion of his goals, and he does this with Othello. He keeps the characters trusting him and believing that he is in that location for them and helping them until it all comes back on him.Iago is able to keep Cassios trust for as long as he needs it just by doing little favors ilk this guaranteeing time with Desd emona.Ill send her to you presently, and Ill devise a repute to draw the Moor out of the way, that your converse and business may be more free.In order to keep their trust he moldiness(prenominal) keep doing things throughout the play for them but keep his ending goal. What appears as a friendly gesture turns into a way to bring Cassio, Desdemona, and Othello down from their high graces. Iago sets up the situation then turns around and uses Cassios good looks, and flirtatious manner with women to play on what he already installed in Othellos mind about Desdemonas fidelity.In the end of the play he completely betrays Cassio and tells Roderigo to refine him. Neither of them are useful anymore to Iago so he sees no reason to keep them around any longer.I have rubbed this new(a) quat almost to the sense, and he grows angry. Now, whether he bulge out Cassio or Cassio him, or each do kill the other, every way makes my gain. Live Roderigo, he calls me to a restitution large of gold an d jewels that I bobbed from him as gifts to Desdemona. It must not be. If Cassio do remain he hath a daily dish in his life that makes me uglyRoderigo was nothing more then a vehicle in Iagos plot and now that he is done with Roderigo there is no need to keep him around and Cassio is the likely man to kill him. Iago has already made Cassio look bad in Othellos eyes and thats all he wanted to do but to Iago he doesnt care whether Roderigo kills Cassio or Cassio kills Roderigo because either way it is good for him. In the end of it Iago has to do it himself all while keeping up his perfect image.While Iago and Bianca are helping Cassio, Iago sends off genus Emilia to tell Othello but in turn Emilia reveals to Othello all about how evil and vindictive Iago is. Iago kills Emilia because she is nothing more than a nuisance and is the only person that can stop him from acquiring what he wants, but in the end it was Iago who really stopped himself. Iagos selfishness, scheming, cunning an d petty revenge are what lead to the death of everything Iago once knew even himself.
Influence of Culture in Nursing course of get queryAmber HussainAbstractThe aim of this study is to identify the align of horti last in treat course of instruction. 30 nursing instructors participated in the study. A questionnaire was distributed, which include five thematic categories. Findings revealed that give lessonsers good deal definition of grow other than and they atomic number 18 aw atomic number 18 of its importance in nursing in companionship to ply heathenish natural longanimous care, but they view student potpourri as challenge in classroom setting.IntroductionDevelopment of course of instruction plays a vital exercise in creating educational change. In order to improve classroom practices and students education, large- home base syllabus reforms are instigated but these practically fall short. There can be variety of reasons for these shortfalls, among which pagan influence is wizard and only(a). To develop and implement a high quality po litical platform, a civilization-sensitive onrush to class development is necessary (Nijhuis, Pieters Voogt, 2013). This approach lose equal or even more than importance in the field of nursing, as nurses are the one who are confronted with unhurrieds who belong to different ethnical backgrounds. fit in to Spritzer et al. (1996), in order to improve nurses cross- pagan awareness, major efforts have been made to develop heathenly sensitive theoretical knowledge. To develop this awareness, teacher has to play a major role as teachers multicultural competency is becoming an increasingly vital element in educational curriculum (Malta, 2012). Therefore, a teachers role is to be aware of their declare acculturation, students culture and acquire students sensitive to cultural various(a) patient care, which can be implemented by using wide-ranging educational activity strategies in classroom setting. According to Maltby (2008), there are a variety of instruct techniques that can be drug abused to engage students in the process of becoming culturally competent such as role plays, using exemplars and web-based interactions.MethodologyUsing convenience sampling, 30 nursing instructors of more than 1 year experience, participated in study. The participants teach at different commandment institutions of nursing i.e. Ziauddin college of Nursing, Baqai College of Nursing and Aga Khan University civilise of Nursing. A survey questionnaire was addicted to rate responses according to five broad aspects definition of culture, cultural sate, students sort, teachers bear cultural values and classroom pedagogies on 3 point equivalentrt scale (refer Appendix A).ResultsThe study found that the definition of culture is seed differently by different teachers. 83% view it as lifestyle of people, 33% confide that it is transformed from one generation to another and 37% comprehend it as identity of people. 77% teachers differ that cultural versatile patient car e is incorporated in nursing curriculum taught in Pakistan and close to the same percentile (80%) of teachers agreed with the consensus that the curriculum is adapting from west and it diverts students from feature culture. 73% stated that diversity among students spend a pennys conflict and it arise difficulty in students learning.100% teachers grok that they are aware of their own culture, 93% knew that it is their responsibility to know just about students culture and therefore 83% opine that it is substantial to train teachers regarding cultural diversity. 80% believe that they also face altercate to teach multicultural class. mass of teachers use different teaching pedagogies like ice breaker (90%), case studies (77%), internet/videos (70%), reflections (67%) and group work (86%), salve there are few who are not using these pedagogies. tidingsTo investigate what teachers think about the role of culture in teaching and learning in nursing curriculum, questions were aske d from them. Results are presented in appendix B and C. The results suggest that teachers in nursing instructs perceive the understanding of culture differently. Majority view it as life style of people and few perceive it as identity of people and few believe that it is transformed from one generation to another .There are various understandings regarding culture. According to Stephens (2007, as cited in Nijhuisetal., 2013), culture gives meaning to beliefs and actions of individual and societies. It is an braintional tool which can be used to describe and evaluate that action. Nijhuis, Pieters and Pieters (2013) view culture as smooth or fixed phenomena.For nursing content part, results show that 77% of the teachers disagree with the opinion that the curriculum present in local context provides nice cultural information. These finding indicated that the loving of information available on the textbooks is not sufficient to teach the culture, which indentifies a gap in the curr iculum content that discern students to hostile culture. Maltby (2008) also questioned the depth of cultural content taught in nursing curriculum. Moreover 80% agree that, nursing curriculum is qualified from western culture and it diverts students from their local culture. The idea emphases that, as most of the textbooks of nursing are adapted from foreign culture, they may cause learners to lose their own cultural identity. According to Thomas (1997) Poor contextual curriculum leads to cultural mismatches on the level of local context.In relation to the cultural diversity in students, majority of instructors reported that their classroom students are culturally diverse, and they believe that this creates challenge for both students and teachers, for example for teachers it would be difficult to respect and impregnate each individual students cultural needs and use teaching strategies accordingly, whereas, for students, diversity creates difficulty in reaching to a consensus. A ccording to Phuntsog (2001) diversity in student directs teachers to provide equal opportunities to all students irrespective of their culture, caste and learning style. On the other hand, according to Marshall (1995) many another(prenominal) institutions value cultural diversity but find it as challenging in a group work because there is a fortune of developing a false consensus, as one think differently than other.Moreover, Majority of teachers have reported that they are familiar with their own cultural values and responsible towards knowing student cultural values. This brings forward the idea of culturally responsive teachers who takes the cultural identities of the students in the classroom into account. This would back up teachers to teach in a way that recognizes that each learner is an individual, with a fact cultural inheritance, who may rely on a different ways of knowing. According to Malta (2012) by recognizing student diversity it would be possible for teachers to sour aware of cultural barriers and learn to teach from a culturally sensitive perspective. Apart from this, majority of teachers had consensus on importance of receiving cultural training, since course trainings would help them to handle cultural themes and topics in more ease due to gaining advance in the subject area.Lastly, the study shed light on what kind of activities teachers practice in their Classrooms. Majority of teachers agree that they use different teaching methodologies i.e. icebreakers, case studies, videos, internets, reflection writing and group work, in order make students understand their own culture, be socially comfortable and understand aspects of foreign culture. These findings are parallel to that of Gonen and Saglam (2012) whereby teachers use different channels of information which expose students to foreign culture. Therefore, teachers develop a critical view towards foreign culture and these various sources of information a use to foster understandin g of diverse culture.ConclusionIn conclusion, culture has an influence in nursing curriculum in the area of content, teaching and learning. In the field of nursing, there is a lack of in depth content regarding culturally diverse patient care and that limited knowledge is mainly adapted from foreign culture due to which we tend to neglect the aspect of native culture. Moreover, students and teachers diverse cultural background and values are also affecting the learning answer in classroom setting. Therefore, it is important for teachers to incorporate those teaching pedagogies which foster the sentiment of cultural sensitive patient care and respect among each other.ReferencesDavidhizar, R., Giger, J.N. (2002). article of belief culture within nursing curriculum using theGigerDavidhizar model of transcultural nursing assessment. Journal of Nursing didactics, 40 (6), 282-284.Flintoff, V.J., Rivers, S. (2012). A reshaping of counseling curriculum responding to thechangingcultura l context. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 40 (3), 235-246.Malta, B.V. (2012). Am I culturally competent? A study on multicultural teaching competenciesamong school teachers in Malta. The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 8 (1), 1-43.Maltby, H.J. (2008). A reflection on culture over time by baccularte nursing students.Contemporary Nurse, 28 (1), 111-118.Marshall, S.P. (2006).Cultural competence in nursing curricula How are we doing 20years later?Guest Editorial, 45(7), 243-244.Nijhuis, C.G., Pieters, J.M., Voogt, J.M. (2013). Influence of culture on curriculumdevelopment in Ghana an undervalued factor? Curriculum Studies, 45(2), 225-250.Phuntsog, N. (2001). Culturally responsive teaching what do selected United States elementarySchool teachers think? Intercultural Education, 12, 51-64.Ruth, L.A. (2003). A critical way of knowing in a multi cultural nursing curriculum. Intuition aWay of Knowing, 24 (3), 129-134.Sairanen, R., Richardson, E., Kelly, L., Bergknut, E ., Koskinen, L., Lundberg, P., Muir, N., Olt,H., Vlieger, L. (2013). put culture in the curriculum A European pop out. Nurse Education in Practice.13, 118-124.Simunovi, V.J., Hren, D., Ivanis, A., Dorup, J., Krivokuca, Z., Ristic, S., verhaaren, H., Sonntag,H., Ribaric, S., Tomic, S., Vojnikovic, B., Selescovic, H., Dahl, M., Marusic, A., Marisic, M. (2007). Survey of attitudes towards curriculum reforms among medical teachers in different socio-economic and cultural environments. Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachers, 29, 833-835.Spitzer, A., Kesselring, A., Ravid, C., Tamir, B., Granot, M., Noam, R. (1996). Learningabout another culture shake off and curricular reflections. Journal of Nursing Education, 35 (7), 322-328.Thomas, E. (1997). Developing a culture-sensitive breeding tackling a problem of meldingglobal culture within existing cultural contexts. International Journal of Educational Development, 17(1), 1326.Vikers, D. (2010). Social justice A concept for undergr aduate nursing curricula. SouthernOnline Journalof Nursing Research, 8(1).Appendix A Questionnaire used for data collection along with consent form directThe purpose of this project study is to identify the influence of culture on nursing curriculum. In this study, culture refers to values, beliefs, language and customs of a grumpy people that impact the area of nursing education and practice. The project essentially analyze the presence of cultural content in nursing curriculum and its significance, effects of students diverse cultural characteristic in classroom learning and teachers competency in relation to culture.ConsentThis is a project beingness conducted by Amber Hussain MSCN student in a course of Curriculum, training and Learning at IED (institute of Educational Development). You are invited to participate in this project because you are associated with teaching in nursing profession.Your participation in this study is voluntary. The procedure involves filling a quest ionnaire. Your responses will be kept unavowed and the results of this study will be used for research purpose.Participant skin senses ______________________Appendix B Compilation of the responses received by answerings on a 3 point likert scaleAppendix C Graphical design of the responses based on 5 broad categoriesGraph 1 The above graph depicts that 83% of the teachers view culture as a lifestyle of people and about one third of the respondents view it as people identity and a permanent phenomena which is transformed from one generation to another.Graph 2 The above graph shows that 77% of the teachers believe that nursing curriculum taught in Pakistan does not provide opportunities for culturally diverse patient care but 77% of the respondents agreed that the nursing curriculum reflect patients values and beliefs. Around 80% of the respondents view that nursing curriculum is adopted from western culture and it alienates students from native culture.Graph 3 The above graph dep icts that more than 77% of the teachers agreed that the student body in classroom is culturally diverse. Around 70% of the respondents also agreed that the language barriers create difficulty in learning and diversity creates conflicts in classroom.Graph 3Graph 5 The above graph depicts that more than 70% of the teachers use the above teaching methodologies frequently in order to achieve different learning objectives.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
People who thinks of Thornton delirious primarily in terms of his classic novella Our Town, The Bridge of San Luis Rey lead seem like quite a switch. For one thing, he has switched countries or else of middle America, he deals here with Peru. He has switched eras, moving from the twentieth cytosine back to the eighteenth. He has also dealt with a much broader society than he did in Our Town, representing the lower classes and the aristocracy with equal ease. But despite these differences, his ascendent is much the same life is short, our expectations can be snuffed out with the centering of a finger, and in the end all that remains of us is those we adjudge loved.The novella begins by describing the quest of a Franciscan monk, Brother raetam, to go steady out why some peoples blisterings are boot out short while others, apparently less deserving of life, live hearty into their eighties and nineties. He has elapseed to witness a terrible accident(the sudden collapse of a national landmark, the Bridge of San Luis Rey) which five people were pass at the time of the disaster. All five were killed instantly a lowly boy, a young girl, a wealthy old woman, an old man, and a youth. Brother Juniper is shocked into a metaphysical thought If in that location were any pattern in the universe at all, any send off in a human life, surely it could be discovered cryptically latent in those lives so suddenly cut off. Either we live by accident and die by accident, or we live by plan and die by plan. And in that instant Brother Juniper made the resolve to inquire into the secret lives of those five persons, that moment travel through the air, and to surprise the reason of their taking off ( mad, 5).This is the wonderful laying claim behind Wilders examination of the connected lives of these five people. some(prenominal) of them never actually meet, any more than we meet people with whom we happen to ride an elevator but, each of them knows someone who knows one of the other victims. Wilder goes on to clear up the stories of their lives, devoting a chapter to each of the major characters The old woman, The Marquesa The young man, Esteban and the old man, Uncle Pio. (The other two victims, the young maid Pepita and the nestling Jaime, are not really explored, because they are seen primarily in blood to the adults they accompany.
This paper is based on the life of Ed Gein. He was an unusual character, born on a conjure up, and raised by a religious crazy, domineering arrive. In the length of a few eld his entire family passed away and he was left to take care of his bring on all by himself. In the succeeding(a) few years he became a grave robber, a necrophiliac, a cannibal, and also took up arts and crafts in body parts. He is know as one of the weirdest ensuant killers of the twentieth century. He also stir movies like Psycho, Silence of The Lambs, and Texas chainsaw Massacre. Ed Gein/ summon 4 inditeName - Edward Ed Gein.AKA - The Butcher of Plainfield, The Plainfield Butcher, The grim Butcher, ThePlainfield Ghoul.DOB/DOD - 1906 - 26 July 1984.Mother Augusta 1878-1945, vex George 1873-1940, Brother Henry 1901-44.Residence(at Time of clear ups) - 160-Acre enkindle Seven Miles Outside Plainfield,Wisconsin. USA.Murder theatrical role/Practices - Serial Killer / Graverobbery, Necrophilia, Cannib alism,Sadism, wipeout Fetishism.Method/Weapons Used - Shooting / .22, .32. composition - Mixed.Mobility - Stable.Victim Vicinity - Plainfield, Wisconsin.Murder Time Span - 1954 - 1957.Victim example - Old Women.Victims - bloody shame Hogan (Died 8 Dec 1954), Bernice Worden (Died 16 Nov 1957) Ed Gein/varlet 5Before the Events Ed Gein and his brother Henry were raised by his religious crazed mother. She was a very domineering woman, and discouraged her sons from women. They lived on a 160-acre prove seven-spot miles outside of Plainfield, Wisconsin. The boys were always busywith farm ferment. His alcoholic father died in 1940 and a few years subsequent his brother Henry died in 1944, trapped while fighting a forest fire. Shortly after(prenominal) his mother suffered a stroke and in 1945 she suffered another one which she never recovered from and left Ed alone.It was whence that he decided to make just off the upstairs of his farm home, the parlour, and his mothers bedroom by boarding it off and set up his own quarters in the remaining bedroom, kitchen and shed of the big house. He stopped working the farm because of agovernment soil-conservation program. They offered him a subsidy, which heaugmented by his work as a handyman in the area.Ed Gein/Page 6 Robbing GravesIn his spare sequence Ed read books on humanity anatomy and Nazi dousing camp... ...ection of shrunkenheads), two skulls for Geins bedposts, a pair of human lips suspension system from string,Eds full woman body suit constructed with human skin and complete with cloakand breasts, Bernice Wordens heart in a pan on the stove, and therefrigerator which was stacked with human organs.Ed Gein /Page 12ConclusionGein was in a series of examinations at the rudimentary State Hospital for the criminally insane. He was proven insane. The reasons for his actions were seenhe love his mother but he hated her, so that is why he killed older women. It issaid that Mary Hogan had more of a passing pari ty to his mother. At Christmas, 1957, Gein was judged insane and he was committed to Waupan StateHospital for a life sentence. Gein died of cancer on July 26, 1984, at the age of 78.He was interred back in Plainfield future(a) to the graves of his family. Ed Gein/Page 13Referenceshttp//www.houseofhorrors.com/gein.htmhttp//www.crimelibrary.com/gein/geinmain.htmhttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Geinhttp//www.prairieghosts.com/ed_gein.htmlEd Gein/Page 14Pictures Ed Gein Essay -- essays research papersThis paper is based on the life of Ed Gein. He was an unusual character, born on a farm, and raised by a religious crazy, domineering mother. In the space of a few years his entire family passed away and he was left to take care of his farm all by himself. In the next few years he became a grave robber, a necrophiliac, a cannibal, and also took up arts and crafts in body parts. He is known as one of the weirdest serial killers of the twentieth century. He also inspired movi es like Psycho, Silence of The Lambs, and Texas Chainsaw Massacre. Ed Gein/Page 4ProfileName - Edward Ed Gein.AKA - The Butcher of Plainfield, The Plainfield Butcher, The Mad Butcher, ThePlainfield Ghoul.DOB/DOD - 1906 - 26 July 1984.Mother Augusta 1878-1945, Father George 1873-1940, Brother Henry 1901-44.Residence(at Time of Murders) - 160-Acre Farm Seven Miles Outside Plainfield,Wisconsin. USA.Murder Type/Practices - Serial Killer / Graverobbery, Necrophilia, Cannibalism,Sadism, Death Fetishism.Method/Weapons Used - Shooting / .22, .32.Organization - Mixed.Mobility - Stable.Victim Vicinity - Plainfield, Wisconsin.Murder Time Span - 1954 - 1957.Victim Type - Old Women.Victims - Mary Hogan (Died 8 Dec 1954), Bernice Worden (Died 16 Nov 1957) Ed Gein/Page 5Before the Events Ed Gein and his brother Henry were raised by his religious crazed mother. She was a very domineering woman, and discouraged her sons from women. They lived on a 160-acre farm seven miles outside of Plainfield, Wis consin. The boys were always busywith farm work. His alcoholic father died in 1940 and a few years later his brother Henry died in 1944, trapped while fighting a forest fire. Shortly after his mother suffered a stroke and in 1945 she suffered another one which she never recovered from and left Ed alone.It was then that he decided to close off the upstairs of his farm home, the parlour, and his mothers bedroom by boarding it off and set up his own quarters in the remaining bedroom, kitchen and shed of the big house. He stopped working the farm because of agovernment soil-conservation program. They offered him a subsidy, which heaugmented by his work as a handyman in the area.Ed Gein/Page 6 Robbing GravesIn his spare time Ed read books on human anatomy and Nazi concentration camp... ...ection of shrunkenheads), two skulls for Geins bedposts, a pair of human lips hanging from string,Eds full woman body suit constructed with human skin and complete with maskand breasts, Bernice Wordens heart in a pan on the stove, and therefrigerator which was stacked with human organs.Ed Gein /Page 12ConclusionGein was in a series of examinations at the Central State Hospital for theCriminally insane. He was proven insane. The reasons for his actions were seenhe loved his mother but he hated her, so that is why he killed older women. It issaid that Mary Hogan had more of a passing resemblance to his mother. At Christmas, 1957, Gein was judged insane and he was committed to Waupan StateHospital for a life sentence. Gein died of cancer on July 26, 1984, at the age of 78.He was buried back in Plainfield next to the graves of his family. Ed Gein/Page 13Referenceshttp//www.houseofhorrors.com/gein.htmhttp//www.crimelibrary.com/gein/geinmain.htmhttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Geinhttp//www.prairieghosts.com/ed_gein.htmlEd Gein/Page 14Pictures
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
How a person envisions health compassionate commonly reflects a persons attitude towards make up or privilege, if they view it from a humanitarian or a financial perspective weighs heavy on how that question is answered. As a Christian who is anti-abortion, the choice of whether health care is a right or a privilege is straightforward healthcare is a fundamental right. Babies are human we do not lose lenience for them just because they grow older. In a moral modern society, medical exam care is something that we all must be able to access, just as the basic needs of having air, food, and life. We frequently accept certain words or phrases, without realizing the full definition of the meaning. We should not be bogged down in the speech of rights or privilege. Human rights are not the same as constitutional rights, as individuals, human rights are what we need for existence by virtue of being human. Some of us are taller, smarter, or slower, but as human beings we are all equal, as our constitution states. We occupy the protection of the human rights in high regard in our realm, how bottomland we not protect a caliber of healthcare for our citizens as strong? Our nation has provided healthcare entitlements for the elderly, the disabled, and the very young for years, is the stretch to universal care for all ages really that far out of reach for humanitarian reasons, after all we do not just live in an parsimony but in a society. All humans are vulnerable to disease, so would we not all benefit socially and fiscally by the pooling of our resources to protect ourselves from the hazards of lifes unknowns. America is nonpareil of the fewer advanced countries that have no healthcare system that cares for its people. A country that is in the forefront ... ...vailable at this time. This lack of basic healthcare is one of our nations great social inequities. Blaming the poor seems to be the scapegoat of those who believe that healthcare is privilege and they do not offer each solutions of dealing with the under or uninsured. As a culture that expects quality care, we need to as a whole, create a basic healthcare system that will provide the highest standard of care and wellbeing of our forthcoming generations. Our health is central to our quality of life, our independence, and even in the pursuit of satisfaction that our United States Constitution guarantees its citizens, many who have given their lives to protect that right. Providing a uniform basic health system is a human right that will serve as a resource that will improve all of society and the common good. Health is our true wealth and it is lift out when it is shared.
Television ProgramsNature. PBS. 2004. Orangutans Just Hangin On.When I was nine years old, my family lived in Ayer, Massachusetts. I was sad to leave my friends in Colorado behind, but luckily lived on a street with a lot of other kids that I became fast friends with. in that location was a force base located in the town, so it was not unusual for newborn transplants to come in and out of the school throughout the school year. My instructor was fantastic and helped me catch up when it was clearly evident that this school was musical mode ahead of mine back home. Soon I became one of the pass by students in my class and had made a best friend in the girl across the street. I began to become accustomed to my quaint undersize town, with the candy store that still sold nickel candies. There was a bookstore that didnt mind if you read the magazines without paying for them, just as dour as your fingers were not sticky from your nickel candy.It was one of those wonderful freewheeli ng days as a kid that my whole world changed. I had received a scooter for my birthday and rode up and shoot down the streets with my friends on their bikes after school. The side by side(p) street over from mine had a bulky winding hill that the daredevil bike riders liked to coast down at what seemed at the time to be as fast as a car. After riding around my much more take aim street, my friends became bored and wanted to test it out. I was not the most equilibrize of creatures on my scooter, and I wimped out. We decided that they would go down the hill and consequently meet me back at the old school that was next to a large field across the street from my house.The school was from the nineteenth century. There had been a fire there that shut the school down, but astonishingly had not caused any structural damage to the outside. It was deemed an historic building so it remained preserved. It was kind of creepy to look in to its abandoned insides, but there was a large aspha lt lot behind it and the field next to it, so the former playgrounds received a lot of attention from the kids in the neighborhood. I rode my scooter down towards the back of the school to where a basketball hoop stood and leaned my scooter against the chain link fence.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
The Evolution of the Internet So you believe Al bloodbath stimulated the Internet? vigorous thats not possible, because I did. Yes, its true, a few years ago I was sitting in my basement with nothing to do and suddenly the idea came to me why not create an inter-connected interlocking of profitss that will allow users to send mail instantly, download procure songs, and order pizza, all from the comfort of their own living room? OK, so maybe I didnt exactly invent the Internet, but uncomplete did Al Gore.So who was the genius behind the information superhighway, you ask? Well lets take a step back to the sixties, a decade when Cold War tension caused nationwide fear of atomic warfare. Early in the decade, two groups of researchers, privately owned RAND Corporation (Americas leading nuclear war think-tank) and federal agency ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), grappled with a bizarre strategic mystery in the event of nuclear war, how could governmental and military off icials communicate successfully? It was obvious that a web, linking cities and military bases, would be necessary. But the advent of the atomic bomb made switches, wiring, and command posts for this network highly vulnerable. A nuclear-safe network would need to operate with missing cerebrate and without central authority. In 1964, RAND Corporations Paul Barran made normal his solution to the problem. Essentially, the concept was simple. Barrans network would be assumed to be unreliable at all times. Information would be broken into much small pieces called packets and then sent to various points, or nodes, in the network until they reached their destination. ARPA embraced Barrans idea for three reasons. First, if nuclear bombs blew away large components of the network, information would still reach its destination. Second, it would be relatively secure from espionage, since spies tapping into parts of the network would be able to intercept only portions of transmissions. Last ly, it would be much more efficient because files and transmissions couldnt clog portions of the network. Only five years later on Barran proposed his version of a computer network, ARPANET went online. Named after its federal sponsor, ARPANET initially relate four high-speed supercomputers and was intended to allow scientists and researchers to share computing facilities by long-distance. By 1971, ARPANET had grown to fifteen nodes, and by 1972, thirty-seven. ARPAs original exemplar for communication was cognise as Network Control Protocol or NCP. As time passed, however, NCP grew obsolete and was replaced by a new, higher-level standard known as TCP-IP, which is still in use today.
Issues in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. DallowayVirginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway revolves around several of the issues that preoccupied the Bloomsbury writers and thinkers as a group. Issues of androgyny, class, madness, and mythology run throughout the novel. While that is hardly an exhaustive list, these notions look to form the core of the structure of the novel. Woolf herself, when envisioning the project, sought to produce a study of insanity and suicide, the world seen by the sane and the insane emplacement by side. This issue of madness, in particular, gives the novel its form as we espouse the twinned lives of Septimus Warren Smith and Clarissa Dalloway. These preoccupations, occuring in the biographical and intellectual lives of the disparate members of Bloomsbury, revolved around Virginia framing the preoccupations and concerns of the text.In terms of the ambiguous sex activity identities running throughout the text (Clarissas frigidity towards her husband, her sexual get win d of women, and Septimuss effeminite nature), there is a tendency towards the asexual or the androgynous in the...
Monday, March 25, 2019
Do Lotteries proceeds the Poor?Lotteries take advantage of the poor in several ways. The drafting entices the poor to waste their currency on lottery tickets, rather than popular necessities, such as food, clothing and shelter. The main way that lottery promoters gain ground in attracting the poor is through the persuasive use of advertisements. Other members of anti-lottery groups retrieve lottery advertisements are deceitful and attract poor people to its promises. insolent slogans and pictures of large amounts of notes are more than enough to pull the wiped out(p) closer. These poor people are those that least need to be attracted, because they do not have the money to spend on tickets. This wasted money on advertisements is capital that should be apply to help the poor in socially useful programs. The lottery is nothing more than a money-taker that uses advertisements to swing those in search of money to try the lottery.The money spent on advertising for the lottery is an absurdly large figure. Not sole(prenominal) are the poor wasting money on lotto tickets, entirely the regimen is also wasting money on advertising for the lottery. The government only started to heavily advertise when they saw the annual sale of lotto tickets declining. In 1998, the lotterys sales growth slowed by two target five percent in one year and new lottery products were created to rekindle public interest, focused primarily towards the poor (Ira Teinowitz 3). Most of these products consisted of unoriginal scratch of tickets where prizes got no higher than five hundred dollars. It has been reported that well-nigh 200 million dollars were spent on lotto advertising in one year between the 38 participating state lotteries (Teinowitz 3). The radical York lottery takes in more than $2 billion in sales each year, and it spends $30 million in advertising to keep the currency rolling in(Joshua Shenk 22). This is very destructive spending, because this money could be u sed for schools, charities, and college education. Besides the money spent on such ads, these ads are manifestly focused towards the poor person who just needs to read a few catchy words to help himself by a ticket. A study by the Heartland Institute has indicated that the poor spend more money than the non-poor on lotteries, not only as a percentage of their income, but also in absolute terms (Shenk 22). The advertisements have slogans such as Play the Lotto, and you could win the stuff dreams are made of(Shenk 22).
To begin this executive summary, we first look at the issue of research. In our semester project we ar discussing the steps one would take in rig to get a home mortgage. The reason we have chosen to do this project is to see how one goes about not only fit approved for a loanword but also how to service your mortgage and keep it up to par. The sources that we used in obtaining this information were sources that were able to avail educate us on home mortgage and also helper us further understand the entire process. The web-site www.mortgage-x.com was to me the most useful in our research. This site provided thousands of articles on the issue, a glossary and dictionary to help us in our search, and also provided a number of links to other sites that could puzzle out on a certain subject. One of the links that we visited was www.fanniemae.com, this site helped us further understand Fannie Mae and apply it to our research. With this extensive research we came across a number of main findings. The first was how one went about getting a home mortgage. We found that when applying for a mortgage the borrower must give a credit report, prove sources of income, show proof of some(prenominal) assets, and proof of any debts, i.e. credit card payments, car loans, ect. After the application process the applier is either accepted or denied the loan, then the terms of the mortgage are decided upon. Terms of the mortgage can include length of the loan or interest that will be charged on the mortgage. hence a mortgage agreement is signed by the borrower and the borrower receives receives the mortgage and the financial institution begins to service the loan. Upon the closing of the mortgage, the financial institution begins to service the ... ...lue of the put up and other factors. Sources1)Gasper, Juli-Ann Ph.D, Mortgage Securitization, Power Point presentation copyright 2002.2) convert III, Samuel L., Mortgage Banking Harvard. 1992.3)Home Buyers Guide. Omaha State Bank, 20014)Kidwell, David S., Richard L. Peterson, and David W. Blackwell. Financial Institutions, Markets, and Money. Harcourt College, 2000, Chapter 10.5)Managing Your Mortgage. 18 Feb. 2002 http//www.mortgage- x.com/library/managing.htm.6)Peterson, Doug. Personal interview. 18 Feb. 2002.7)Mortgage Application. 18 Feb. 2002 http//www.mortgage- x.com/library/application.htm.8) conveyance of title of Your Mortgage. 18 Feb. 2002 http//www.mortgage- x.com/library/loan_transfer.htm.9)Understanding Fannie Mae. 15 Feb. 2002 http//www.fanniemae.com/aboutfm.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
The Need For world-wide health Cargon want many college students I suck in to pinch pennies to make it through school. either last penny counts when budgeting my monetary supply. As a result of this I have found that I do not have abounding to spare to pay for health damages. Unlike most college students I am over the age of 23 and thus not covered by my parents insurance. Since I am only employed part time I am also not able to obtain it from work. This puts me in the familiarity of the more than 42 million Americans who do not have health insurance. It is past time that the United States join the rest of the industrialized countries that have already decided to provide their citizens with health care. I believe a single payer health care system is necessary. A issue health care system would provide a number of benefits. To set off with, it would cut the overall costs of health care. Secondly it would actually light bureaucracy by removing the many layers of insurance pa per work patients and physicians are forced to go through in our current system. Finally it would make up life expectancy by allowing more money conscious Americans to peck adequate prevention instead of waiting until an illness becomes worse. All of these reasons head up towards a national health care program as beingness the solution we need. Some opponents of single payer sytems, mostly financed by insurance companies that stand to lose billions from such a plan, point to some of the new(prenominal) countries that have enacted such plans as an advisory against our following suit. However they leave out to take into account some of the methods unique to those countries and overstate some of the problems piece of music ignoring our own.Single payer health programs are set up so that all... ... that we, as a nation that considers ourselves civilized can make to checker the health and safety of our populace. Works CitedCanham-Clyne, John, Woolhandler, Steffie, and Himmelstei n, David. The Rational Option. For A National health Program. Stony Creek, Connecticut The Pamphleteers Press, 1995 Fisk, Milton. Toward a Healthy Society The Morality and political sympathies of American Health Care Reform. Lawrence Kansas University Press of Kansas, 2000 Kuttner, Robert. ?The Efficiency of Universal Health Care.? Boston Globe. 12 February 2000. http//www.globe.com/dailyglobe2/044/oped/The_efficiency_of_ universal_health_careP.shtml Sheils, John F. and Haught, Randall A. Analysis of the Costs and Impact of Universal Health Care Models for the State of Maryland The Single-Payer and Multi-Payer Models. 2 May 2000. http//www.healthcareforall.com/summary.html
TrigonometryTrigonometry uses the detail that ratios of pairs of sides of triangles arefunctions of the angles. The basis for mensuration of triangles is the right-angled triangle. The term trigonometry center liter totallyy the measurement oftriangles. Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that essential from simplemeasurements.A theorem is the most important result in all of elementary mathematics. It wasthe motivation for a wealth of advanced mathematics, such as Fermats LastTheorem and the theory of Hilbert space. The Pythagorean Theorem asserts thatfor a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is jibe to the sum of thesquares of the other two sides. There are many ways to prove the PythagoreanTheorem. A particularly simple one is the grading relationship for areas ofsimilar figures.Did Pythagoras derive the Pythagorean Theorem or did he component it together bystudying ancient cultures Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China? What did theseancient cultures agnize ab out the theorem? Where was the theorem used in theirsocieties? In "Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations", the authordiscusses who trustworthyly derived the Pythagorean Theorem. He quotes Proclos, acommentator of Euclids elements, "if we listen to those who propensity to recount theancient history we may find some who relate this theorem to Pythagoras, and saythat he sacrificed an ox in honor of his discovery". If this rehearsal isconsidered as a statement of feature, it is extremely improbable, for Pythagoraswas opposed to the sacrifice of animals, oddly cattle. If the saying isconsidered as just a leg intercept, it is easy to explain how such a legend might havecome into existence. Perhaps the original form of the legend said somethinglike he who discovered the celebrated figure sacrificed a bull in honor of hisdiscovery.Van der Waerden goes on to comment that he believes the original discoverer wasa priest, before the metre of Babylonian texts, wh o was allowed to sacrificeanimals and also was a mathematician. This question stinker neer be answered, butevidence that societies used the theorem before the time of Pythagoras can befound.The Theorem is useful in everyday life. For example, at a trustworthy time of day,the suns rays cast a three foot shadow dispatch a four foot flag pole. Knowingthese two lengths, and the fact that the pole forms a ninety degree angle withthe ground, the distance from the end of the shadow to the top of the pole canbe found without measuring. The maiden step is to substitute the given data
Saturday, March 23, 2019
Of Mice And Men, being a story slightly two men and their struggles, however neer really going into specific of the mice in which were unjustly murdered. The mice slaughtered by Lennie were neer really at error for their actions. When being harshly petted by Lennie, the mice would only try to protect themselves, consequently Lennie resorted to killing the mice in his own defense.These mice, being killed constantly by Lennie, were irreproachable victims sent to their predator by Lennies Aunt Clara. Did Aunt Clara shoot the consequences that would later effect the mice? These mice may take a leak had families of their own in which they would never return to. A mother snarf may hasten equanimous food for the next meal only to see the father of her children never return. Of course it is better that she never see what had fatally happened that day.These mice, once caught by Aunt Clara, never had a chance. After capturing this poor, innocent, little shaft, it was then release d into the reach of Lennie. Is it the mices fault that they are so soft, and checkable? If only mice were much repugnant, hideous or gruesome they would have a chance of surviving. mayhap if these minute creatures were more passive, and did non try to protect themselves they would good-tempered be alive. However, how can one be positive(predicate) of that? Perhaps Lennie would have petted the creature to a more powerful extent thus killing it still while the innocent mice just took the suffering.Unknown to Lennie, the mice may have had a dream just like him. Though most mice probably would not have dreamt about owning their own land, a dream may have still existed. Maybe the mice would have wanted to live some rear safe from people. Dreaming of a place in which a mouse could eat all the time not having to search for food, Lennie may have killed them. This harsh reality is exactly the same as what had happened to Lennie. It is unable to be disproved that what George had done t o Lennie in his time of weakness was not the same as what Lennie had done to the mice in their time of helplessness. Possibly, that was how the mice wanted to die though, happy picturing their dreams in their heads. On the other hand, one is not to be sure that these mice did not die in excruciating pain, paralyzed by the touch of this enormous creature.
First recognize Pathway to AdulthoodLove is one of the strongest emotions that a human be can feel. Itcan arise ever so suddenly, spreading a feeling of warm happiness through everyinch of a person like wildfire spreading through a tree. But as the feelingsbecome more intense, the flame of passion can turn into a blazing fire thatburns painfully through every vein. A persons first have it off is especiallypowerful because it grows from an innocent, nave passion. Such was the vitrinefor both Vladimir, in Turgenevs First Love, and Tatyana, in Pushkins EugeneOnegin. The first experience of unanswered approve for Vladimir and Tatyana wasfilled with these raptures and tribulations, which, although left them brokenhearted, gave them the strength and maturity unavoidable to become adults.     Throughout the genre of First Love, Vladimir was shown to be all toldswooped up in overwhelming emotion for Zinaida. Vladimir was entranced with herbeauty from the moment h e first saw her, "I gazed at her, and how dear shealready was to me , and how near. It calculateed to me that I had known her for along time, and that before her I had known nought and had not lived. (33)"Vladimir was in love at the first sight of her. He couldnt help himself frombecoming infatuated with her because he didnt know the first matter about love.As the genre moves on, Vladimirs feelings for Zinaida became deeper and deeper.Vladimir thought to himselfI felt wear upon and at peace, but the image of Zinaida still hovered triumphantover my soul, though even this image seemed more tranquil. Like a swan ascentfrom the grasses of the marsh, it stood out from the unlovely shapes whichsurrounded it, and I, as I fell asleep, in parting for the last time clung to it,in trusting adoration. (48)Vladimir allows himself to become completely wrapped up in Zinaida to the pointwhere it becomes an obsession. He is in love with her so much that he evenenvisions himself rescuing her, as if from any other(a) man "I saw a vision ofmyself saving her from the give of her enemies I imagined how, covered withblood, I tore her from the very jaws of some low dungeon and then died at herfeet (71-72)." Vladimir was so lost in love for Zinaida that he fantasizedabout her in order to make their love seem real. Although Vladimirs obsessivelove for Zinaida brought wonderful emotions, it also brought the pain andsuffering of jealousy and rejection.     The raptures that Vladimir experienced went hand in hand with the