Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Critically Analyse How the Government Debt Problems Essay

IntroductionSince the Greeces debt crisis happened, the Euro z unmatched has to confront with a coarse crowned head debt crisis, resembling organisations debt increased, alinement reach spreads widened, Euro stand in rate flee as well, which caused that the substantial international fiscal markets gradually lost the sanction. The excogitation of this essay is to discuss the advert of this crisis both on foreign replace and derivative markets. And the rest words is to analyse several possible reasons wherefore this small economy could trigger much(prenominal) a wide electrical shock on global financial markets, in which contagion can be considered as the fundamental and identifiable cause during the whole spread of crisis.The Impacts of europiuman sovereign debt crisisForeign re-sentencingForeign replace market, as the bear-sizedst and the intimately liquid financial market, with an average daily trading volume of well-nigh $1.5 trillion changing hands where stati stically it is superior to all US equity and Treasure markets combined (Michelle Chan, 2011), was expectedly deteriorated as well as fluctuated by the ongoing European debt sovereign crisis since 2008.On matchless hand, the foreign exchange market reflected considerable stress under the lingering European debt crisis. On the basis of the financial markets St world power Map(graphical record1), app atomic number 18ntly, financial markets, particularly the foreign exchange market continued to be weaker and experienced the heightened volatility. This weakness is shown in the graph1 that risks in turn increase as the movement gradually moves away from the map center. Dissimilarly, risks in the rest of three components of the financial markets stability map, banking sector funding, debt and equity markets remained for the most part stable as well as unchanged, comp ared with the foreign exchange market. mainly to say, as indicated by the trends in the financial Stability Map, the overall stability of the financial administration kept in a robust development.Graph1 Financial Stability Mappic rootage BloombergOn another hand, the foreign exchange rate was deeply influenced as well, particularly the depreciation of the Euro was more freehanded against non-European currencies, such as yen, the USD and the GBP, as non-European currencies was coinstantaneously extend toed by spillover effects from the euro-zone. fit in to the graph2, the euro has depreciated against the USD and Japanese yen by around 25 portion since the previous(a) 2011, moreover by approximately 4 to 8 portion against the UK pound. Overall, the euro has depreciated by 8 percent on a trade-weighted basis (TWI) since the mid 2011, move around its average index.Graph 2 Euro against Selected CurrenciespicSource Bloomberg RBAOn the contrary, accord to the Graph3, the Japanese yen had been depreciated slightly and modestly against the USD from its nearest highest rate in late November 2011. G enerally to say, the yen was smoothly unchanged against the US dollar mark during the time period of six mouths. Nevertheless, the yen has appreciated by 7 percent against the euro since late 2011, reaching a highest level during past 11 historic period at the beginning of 2012. Reflecting this in the graph2, Japans titular trade-weighted index (TWI) has recovered to historically high levels, though it remains save above its long-run average in real term (Reserve depose of Australia, 2012).Graph 3 Japanese Effective Exchange RatespicSource BIS RBAAs for the USD, it was appreciated extremely strongly against the euro since late November 2011, seen in the Graph4, but depreciated against other foreign currencies. Concerning the trade-weighted index (TWI), the USD was mostly unchanged since 2011.Graph 4 US Dollar against Selected CurrenciespicSource BloombergOppositely, after fluctuational depreciating during the past fewer months, several emerging market currencies have appreciate d since the beginning of 2012(Graph5). However, as the continuous concerns active spillover effects from the euro rural area debt crisis, emerging European currencies remained relatively weak nowadays.Graph5 Emerging Market CurrenciespicSources Bloomberg IMF RBADerivative MarketIn 2001, in order to enter European Union, Greece referred the U.S. metallicman Sachs to design the currency change overs, which facilitated Greece join the European union. Nevertheless after predicting the prospects of the Greek economy, Goldman bought German CDS credit default swap insurance and gambled that Greek could not afford such a braggy sum of payment of insurance that purchased the cheap CDS. When Greece debt stone-broke out, distribute the unstable news of the Greeces pay ability to increase the set of CDS and earn the price differences.With the emergence of European debt crisis, the credit rank of some countries exchangeable Greece, Portugal, Ireland and Spain had been downgraded in t erm of there sovereign credit, which means the international markets would no longer trust these sparingal situation and credit rating levels. As a result,most of potential buyers and sellers of adhesivenesss in the sovereign debt market began to suspect the governments ability to repay its debt, and then they will require a higher bond ignore rate in the potential risk of default about sovereign bond as the part of the compensation of risk premium. When the discount rate significantly exceeds the risk-free rate, the national debt will be in a rather high discount rate. In addition, the CDS price of the European countries increased rapidly. As we saw from the graph6, the Greece five years CDS price had reached to or so 1500, which reflects the buyer of the CDS have to cost a relatively higher wee-wee rate to buy the Greeces credit risk call option.Graph 6 5 years crowned head CDS risk premium and Sovereign credit rating in different countries. picSource BloombergAnother impact on derivation market is the Futures and Options. Traders and hedge funds had bet about $8bn (5.1bn) to against the euro, amassing the biggest ever short position in the virtuoso currency on fears of a euro-zone debt crisis. Figures from CME(Chicago Mercantile Exchange) illustrates that investors had enhanced their positions against the euro to record levels. This phenomena demonstrates that investors were losing confidence in the single currencys ability to withstand any contagion from Greeces budget problems affecting other European countries(Financial Time, 2010). Additionally, European debt crisis aggravated as the Moody turn 17 German banks rating outlook to ostracize on the 25th of July. The bear have the advantage in the Futures and Options market.How does the European debt crisis transmissionSince the Greece was downgraded by credit rating companies, European sovereign debt crisis broke out and then intensified across the euro-zone. Other European countries like Belgium, Portugal, Spain and Italy. Germany and other primary euro-zone countries had begun to be impacted by such an undeniable crisis(Graph 7), simultaneously the euro fell sharply. With European stock markets at rock bottom, the euro area was experiencing the most severe difficulty since its inauguration. Whist the debt crisis was unexpected expanded. As to how and wherefore this small economies could trigger such a wide impact in financial markets, it must be the financial contagion.Graph 7 How sovereign debit crisis could spread through the Euro-zone picThe inter-contagion within a country could be considered as an essential cause that triggered such a wide impact in financial markets. The interconnectedness means that a crisis in one can cripple the other (Daniel and Harold, 2012). As European banks are more than more deeply connected to their individual governments, euro-zone banks naturally hold large shares of their governments debt, like in Greece and Germany, domestic banks hol d nigh 20 percent of domestic government debt, and Spanish banks hold around 30 percent (Silvia and John, 2012). So look, other financial domestic institutions may hold practically domestic debt as well, such as insurance companies. regime. Spain exemplifies contagion scatter from banks to government. Spains banks were loaded with mortgages that went bad when the countrys housing burble popped. Despite modest debt and budget surpluses in six of the seven years preceding the crisis ( cosmea Bank, 2007), the band crisis caused the government to lose control of its financing. Generally to say, government risk could affect banks, otherwise, if banks fail, the governments bond market customers are bankrupt (The Heritage Foundation, 2012).And moreover, with the momentum of the globalization, the world economy is becoming tightly linked, like non-euro countries governments or banks hold the European bonds. It means that problems in one part of the world can reverberate almost everywh ere else-risking a cascade of default contagion, contracting credit and collapsing economic activity. For example, in October 2011, Italian borrowers owed French banks $366 billion (net). Should Italy be unable to finance itself, the French banking system and economy could come under significant pressure, which in turn would affect Frances creditors(Seth et al., 2011). Greece, for instance, its debt is held by a host of other EU members. at a time it defaults, the ripple effect for the economy as a whole would be devastating across the region, probably the world. The statistics from the IMF illustrated that the German banks held Greek government bonds up to totaling $ 14.1 billion and $ 13.4 billion was held by French banking industry.And also the China holds nearly 600 billion Euros of the European bonds. So if the debtor countries cannot pay the money on time ,not only itself but also these creditor will under a huge financial pressure. This is simply showed by the MF Global who is the biggest victims in the European debt crisis that Global voted to file for bankruptcy. The main reason why MF Global got into financial trouble is because it bought over 6 billion U.S. dollars in European sovereign debt, mainly related to the national debt of countries like Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Belgium. Finally, European debt crisis have the first victims outside the region of the Europe. Thus,the connection each economic system makes the risk contagious simply.Apart from those mentioned above, an alternative way for this crisis transmission is the relation among correlation coefficients in the qualified correlation model (DCC),which may be related to herding behaviour, specially the rating agency continually bring down euro-zone counties grades and as well as influences formed the short-selling speculators.Some studies estimated a dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) in order to analyse the correlation expression of Greek, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian , Dutch, Belgian and Austrian bond comport spreads over the German yield to study contagion in the Euro battleground. In particular, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Belgian yield spreads do increase along with their Greek counterpart. Thus it seems that Greek financial problems could spread via contagion to other Euro Area countries.As European counties are related, if it is more likely for similarly bad rated countries to sustain a rating cut once Greek was downgraded, then for such countries the control variable star should have a positive impact on the correlation coefficients(Sebastian and Sebastian, 2011). then in terms of European debt crisis, contagion occurs when investors believe that other countries, in addition to the original country facing economic crisis, pose a risk of finance overtaking and act accordingly(Lia Mennde, 2012). And according to the swarm Instinctother European countries, to some extend, would be influenced,particularly for those counties who had b een facing such problems.Due to the European sovereign debt crisis not only impacted the bond market, the equity market, money market and foreign exchange market, even the whole world was also affected. As all the country has International Reserves, Gold Reserves and Foreign Exchange Reserves, it can be evidently reflected that a bigger concern would be jitters over if sovereign debt expire less focused on euro-zone and more global. As the stock price declined, and the euro devaluated, Europes crisis will no longer be Europe s along. It would affect the global trade balances even.ConclusionSince the early 2010, the Euro Area faced a severe sovereign debt crisis, resulting from government deficits and debt levels which triggered rating agencies later on to downgrade the credit ratings of nine euro area sovereigns, thereby creating a loss of confidence in financial markets. Learning from this crisis, bank should increase their not bad(p) to counteract the loss and passive influence s of the crisis. And meanwhile, governments need to broaden revenue and tone up the budget management, as well as control the government debt reasonably, particularly, investors confidence should be reactuated urgently.Reference1 Chan, M. (2011) Robin Hood Meets Wall Street (online). Poole Friends of the Earth. acquirable from http//www.foe.org/news/archives/2011-02-robin-hood-meets-wall-street (Accessed 22 Feb 2011).2 Reserve Bank Of Australia(2012). Statement on Monetary Police (online). Available from http//www.rba.gov.au/publications/smp/2012/feb/html/intl-fx-mkts.html (Assessed 9 August 2012).3 Financial Time,2010raders in record bet against the euro (online)Available fromhttp//www.ft.com/cms/s/0/9203f08c-151a-11df-ad58-00144feab49a.htmlaxzz2BOITU3eG4 Daniel, W. and Harold, H. (2012). Spains Banks, Government Co-Dependent on Debt . Associated Press. June 25, 2012. Available fromhttp//www.sfgate.com/business/article/Spain-s-banks-government-co-dependent-on-debt-3660227.php (Ac cessed June 26, 2012)5 Silvia Merler and John Pisani-Ferry (2012), Whos Afraid of Sovereign Bonds?Bruegel Policy Contribution. No. 2012/02, February 2012. Available from http//docs.jean-jaures.net/NL470/21.pdf (Accessed June 26, 2012).6 World Bank, World Development Indicators. Cash Surplus/Deficit as % of GDP 20012007.7 Furth, S. and Ligon, J. L. (2012) How inherited Is Europes Economic Crisis? Backgrounder (online), No.2726. Available from http//report.heritage.org/bg2726 (Accessed 18 Sep. 2012).8 Seth W. Feaster Nelson D. Schwartz turkey cock Kuntz (2011-10-22). NYT-Its All Connected-A Spectators Guide to the Euro Crisis. New York Times Available from http//www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/10/22/opinion/20111023_DATAPOINTS.html?ref=sunday-review. Retrieved 2012-05-14.9 Sebastian MissioSebastian Watzka,(2011-08-31).Financial Contagion and the European Debt Crisis diary of Economic Literature, E43, E44, E63. p2.10 Menndez, L.(2012). The spread of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis (online). Available from https//docs.google.com/sweetheart?a=v&q=cacheIaD0olBUZ2kJebook.law.uiowa.edu/ebook/sites/default/files/Spread%2520of%2520the%2520European%2520Sovereign%2520Debt%2520Crisis.pdf+The+spread+of+the+European+Sovereign+Debt+Crisis&hl=zh-CN&

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