Wednesday, December 19, 2018
'Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Essay\r'
'In the early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s in that location was a drift towards cognitive appearance Therapy as people turned a path out of disappointment in the psychodynamic possible action for psychotherapy. Also at this cartridge clip brotherly learning hypothesis was the late and upcoming study. This is when cognitive system emerged with Alfred Adler. He was the first gear cognitive therapist who came up with the idea that an individuals beliefs and ideas is what exacts up their port (Lantz, 1996). He believed that this type of psychotherapy would bothow the nodes to behave metamorphoses in the way they gauge to form their behaviour and solve their jobs. Alfred Adler was non the only contri stillor to cognitive conjecture. Between the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s Albert Ellis came up with impaired thinking or emotions that amount from anomalous beliefs.\r\nHe sought out to transplant these unclear emotions with psychotherapy and by ch all in allenging t hese beliefs. His books ar very well know and employ a lot of by different therapist. He is fundamentally considered the grandfather of cognitive look Therapy and his ABC archetype is utilize widely. Albert came up with Rational-emotive therapy, which was later on changed to Rational-emotive appearance therapy be run Ellis wanted his invitees to act upon their new beliefs by putting them into practice (Wilde, 1996, p. 9). Others who find out contri stilled to cognitive theory have been William Glasser, Arnold Lazarus, get dressed Tosi, Victor Ramy, Maxie Maultsby, Aron Beck and many more. William Glasser mapd trenchant psychotherapy to sponsor his customers find courage to change their life style and be dress more responsible for(p) of their goals.\r\nHe did this by pointing out the worth of egotism and the basic adult male need to be loved. His Ã¢â¬Ë world therapyÃ¢â¬â¢ consisted of his clients focusing on soulfulnessal responsibility to run across their own reality (Lantz, 1996). Arnold Lazarus came up with the seven modes of the client that sponsor assess their functioning. These seven modes be sensation, imagery, cognition, hold back affect, interpersonal living and drugs (Lantz, 1996). These modes, according to Lazarus, would friend come up with a give-and-take plan that would c atomic number 18 the client in all areas of their function lives. Don Tosi contributed to cognitive theory by intergrading hypnosis with the therapy.\r\nHypnosis is used to admirer the clients picture their thoughts in a healthy way through exploration and redirection (Lantz, 1996). Victor Ramy cerebrate his excogitate on helping clients change their self- fancy. His books show how to help a client scat with and change the cognitive misunderstanding of themselves. Maxie Maultsby used the ABC role model as used by Albert Ellis but he as well as contributed by using sensible style therapy with youngsters, for self-help groupings, and group the rapy. Aron Beck was a psychiatrist who used cognitive treatment to help his clients who had fretting and personality disorders. He did broad research on effective cognitive therapy and how it helps clients with a range of individual problems from suicidal patients to those who have delimitation personality disorders.\r\nMany of those who contributed to Cognitive therapy were not sociable doers. The first genial worker that used Cognitive therapy was Harold Werner. Werner struggled early on when he tried to occupy Cognitive therapy to social work as those who had a psychoanalytical point of view attacked him. His efforts allowed the theory to be accepted in the social work arena. Howard Goldstein in any case helped bring Cognitive therapy into the social work profession.\r\n behaviour theory is a mixture of different theories have and it first came about in the first take in of this century. The work of Ivan Pavlov and his classical conditioning theory, the work of B.F. mule skinner and J.B. Watson and their operant condition theory and the work of Bandura on the social learning theory is all unite in the way theory. The classical conditioning theory states that a conditi unrivalledd stimulant discount cause a conditi unmatchabled response with the famous practice session of Pavlov and the salivating dog.\r\nThis is a expression that is erudite and that provoke be used to help clients during therapy especially those who have anxiety disorders. The operant conditioning uses human way and examines it. muleteer believed that fashion was measurable and that certain situations cause human to react is certain ways. Once these ways are learned through the scientific method we can regulate a clients actions and help them with either negative or peremptory rewardments. This go away either summation or decrease the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s way depending on if the behavior is punished or positive(p)ly reinforced.\r\nIn the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s is when beha vior theory became a front-runner with clinical social work. At this time the psychodynamic theories were under attack and a new theories were sought out. Social learning theory focuses on using the ABC model that Albert Ellis used to help clients. This involves finding the antecedents, objective behaviors, and publication in ones elusive behavior.\r\nAntecedents is what the client was doing before the situation occurred, target behavior is the behavior that needs to be changed or focused on and the second is the result because of their target behavior (Thomlison & international ampere; Thomlison, 1996). These three are analyzed to construe out what needs to change in the behavior to get an alternate positive import or to see how the situation can be avoided. Principles and Concepts:\r\n in that respect are four basic concepts to Cognitive theory. The first uses Albert EllisÃ¢â¬â¢s ABC model to deal with the emotions we feel and the way we think about our situations and ourse lves. The ABC model helps us identify our thoughts and indeed helps us subdue our emotions (Lantz, 1996). If what we are thinking during a situation is senseless whence our emotions are going to be unruly and unreasoning also. If we have demythologized thoughts then our emotions will be functional. If our trigger behavior causes ludicrous emotions then we need to find perspicacious emotions to replace the irrational belief (Wilde, 1996, p. 33).\r\nThe second basic concept to Cognitive theory is that these irrational beliefs are in our unconscious and we are not aware of them. This whitethorn touch on it difficult to find out what the thoughts are and why we have dysfunctional emotions. To help our clients notice their irrational beliefs we have to allow them to learn misconceptions about themselves so they are more aware of their thoughts. Irrational believes go on to illogical emotions, which causes the client to react in an chimerical way, but on that point are exact ions to these types of situation, which is basic concept three (Lantz, 1996). Sometimes the way we feel has secret code to do with our irrational beliefs. What we are touch is authentically true or there could be a neurological or other health problem, which can make an individual feel down or angry or upset. A disparity in the brain chemistry can cause dysfunctional emotions.\r\nLastly all irrational emotions are not always dysfunctional which means a rational belief can be dysfunctional also. A client great power get sort of Ã¢â¬Ë risqueÃ¢â¬â¢ or disturbed from something dangerous such(prenominal) as a gun. Playing with a gun might give a client a feeling of excitement and happiness but it is not in force(p) to play with guns. Feeling happy or excited is not considered a dysfunctional emotion but in this case we would have to teach the client about the misconception in their mind that playing with guns is steady-going or fun. Cognitive theory allows a person to recogniz e their environs and their situation both physically and communally and it allows them to work through and change it (Lantz, 1996).\r\nA basic concept to Behavior theory is that all behavior is learned and that individual have gnarly behaviors. According to Skinner our social problems can be measured through our behavior. By changing the environment and reinforcing the client with either positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement we can get them to change their behavior. The stimuli from the reinforcement will allow the client to either change or remove the behavior (Thomlison & Thomlison, 1996). Social learning theory, which involves the ABC model, shows us how behavior can change for the better. Similarities and Differences:\r\nThe biggest similarity between Cognitive theory and Behavior theory is the intertwining of the Social eruditeness Theory. They both use the ABC model and look at the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences of each situation. With Cognitive the ory, the trigger behavior comes with an irrational belief that needs to be changed. Clients practically times have irrational beliefs during their behavior. After the consequence takes place the ABC model will help us show them their irrational beliefs and teach them that with a rational belief a different consequence could have taken place. With Behavior theory a similar pattern is used.\r\nThe problem is identified and the target behavior is observed by the social worker other wise known as Ã¢â¬Ëbehavior analysisÃ¢â¬â¢ (Thomlison & Thomlison, 1996). The social worker then works with the clients on changing both the antecedents and the consequences to see a different behavior. Changing the antecedent is known as manipulating the environment condition (Streff, Geller, 1986). The antecedent is changed to increase a positive behavior in the situation. The consequence is used as reinforcement either positive or negative. The reinforcement allows for a change in behavior.\r\nT he difference between the two theories is that one focuses on the beliefs and emotions that one has about themselves and the behavior that comes from these beliefs and the other focuses on problematic behavior and the reinforcements that change this type of behavior. Behavior therapy uses both positive and negative reinforcements and Cognitive therapy focuses on eliminating the negative behavior or emotion and substitute it with positive rational behavior.\r\nA belief dental plate that serves as a measure from one to ten, is used to see how irrational the clients beliefs really are (Watson, Morris, Miller, 2001). With Behavior therapy reinforcements are used to encourage clients but with Cognitive therapy rational beliefs are used to encourage clients. The clients are questioned on their beliefs and often times humor is used to show the clients how irrational their beliefs can be (Wilde, 1996, p. 61).\r\nA limitation of behavior therapy is that reinforcement donÃ¢â¬â¢t always wo rk for everyone. A stimulus for reinforcing soul depends on that personÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the stimulus (Wilde, 1996, p. 18). If an individual is having behavior problems and the negative reinforcement is to quench aft(prenominal) school, the individual might not think of it as negative reinforcement if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like going plaza. Their situation at home might be worse then staying after school for detention. Another issue is that behavior theory only deals with the exterior of the problem and does not study the deep down root of the problem. Because behavior therapy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on the internal process of the client, the reinforcements are only successful if they bring change in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s life for the better.\r\nAlthough Cognitive theory may look at the root of the problem by focusing on automatic thoughts and pump beliefs, it also has limitations. It is argued that Cognitive theory only looks at the problem for that one situation that occurs. On e sequent takes place where the client has inappropriate behavior with irrational beliefs (Atherton, 2007). Other aspects of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s life may or may not come up while discovering their irrational beliefs.\r\nAnother issue is that with Cognitive theory, treatment is not emphasized with family members, the environment, and other interventions (Lantz, 1996). both(prenominal) theories are culturally sensitive and work with all different backgrounds. Because different races and kitchen-gardenings have different social misconceptions, irrational beliefs may vary from finish to culture; but all cultures have irrational beliefs (Lantz, 1996).\r\nWhat is considered positive or negative reinforcements in one culture may not be considered so in another culture. These types of things vary but both types of therapy work with all different sorts of people. Both theories are harmonious with the NASW code of ethics. Cognitive therapy and Behavior therapy both rate the client and h umanity. Cognitive therapists emphasize the use for rational thinking, which is not only for the client but also for society. The worth of the client is maintained and it is important to make sure that the client doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel endanger or ashamed by these techniques and it is up to the social worker to maintain these techniques. Blending The Two Theories:\r\n explore shows that when blending Cognitive therapy with Behavior therapy there are no proven results that the outcome is better for the client right away. The research does show however that there are more long term results when corporate trust the two theories as apposed to just using one therapy or the other (Thomlison & Thomlison, 1996). Behavior theorists such as Skinner argue that when combining Cognitive theory to Behavior theory, the focus on behavior gets diverted and so the therapy is not as effective.\r\n look into is not conclusive on this matter but it shows that efficacy to the therapy depends on the prob lem that the client is having. As time goes on most social workers use Cognitive Behavior Therapy and not just one or the other. By blending the two theories we can focus on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, reinforce their positive behaviors and allow them to recognize their ideas and beliefs about their behavior to allow them to make rational choices and have rational emotions.\r\n'